I need th outline to be done before October 12th.. I also want the presentation outline.. Be certain to focus on the environmental issue and its relevance to ecology. Your paper should not be about how humans are impacted by your topic…Do not use quotes in your paper.You should paraphrase and give proper credit by citing the author(s); direct quotes are not commonly used in science writing… The use of section headings and subheadings can be extremely helpful in structuring a paper, and will make it easier for people to read. You musthave at least 10 citations for your final paper with at least 8 citations from the primary literature. Additional sources from secondary and tertiary literature (e.g. books, government documents) may be used, but these do not count toward the eight minimum primary sources. Do not cite web-based resources using links.Format: Page length:8-10 pages, double-spaced. This length does not include figures and tables (optional) and the Literature Cited section.Page format:1-inch margins and 12-point Times or Times New Roman fontOrganism names: scientific names (genus and species) go in italics and common names are lowercase; family names do not go in italics, but start with a capital letter.Section order:(1) Paper title with your name, your group topic, and section number; (2) the Introduction; (3) the Body of the paper (organized with section headings); (3) Conclusions and Directions for Future Research; (4) Literature Cited section; and (5) an Appendix of figures and tables (optional)..If you want to receive a good grade on your research review paper, your paper must also contain detailed and useful information on your study system (the study system consists of your threat and how it affects the ecosystem you have researched). Additionally, it must be demonstrated that youhave a firm understanding of this information, as you should be very knowledgeable about your topic by the time you have completed this paper. You will demonstrate your understanding by explaining the relevant research for your topic in your own words.Getting Started on
Research
General guidelines, finding and citing sources
Reminder

Paper should encompass the following aspects of your topic

History/causes

Direct effects on organisms

Effects on trophic interactions

Competition, predation, symbiosis, facilitation, etc.

Effects on nutrient cycling

Effects on the biodiversity of the system

Avoid discussing effects of your topic on humans or human society

Each student in a group must have a unique topic

Focus placed on different ecosystems
Research Paper Format

8-10 pages double-spaced, Times New Roman, 1-inch margins



Does not include figures, tables, reference page
Tone should be professional

Avoid colloquialisms, slang, or poetic language

Proper grammar, spelling, and punctuation
Citations placed both in text and at the end of the paper
References

Must provide at least 10 citations


Realistically, 15-20 will be more likely
At least 8 of those citations must come from peer-reviewed scientific journal
articles

More is better

Other sources can include textbooks or government documents on the subject

For other sources (newspaper/magazine articles, websites, and yes,
Wikipedia), follow the citation trail until you find the original document
How to Find Scientific Journal Papers


SDSU Library Website

OneSearch

Useful for conducting general searches
on a topic

Guaranteed access to the papers found
Google Scholar

Good for finding articles
you know the name of

Caution: will find papers
that you might not be
able to access
Citation Format

Ecology format

On the references page

Last name, first initials. Year. Title of the article with first letter and proper nouns
capitalized. Journal name volume #: pg#-pg#.

For multiple authors, all after the first use First Initials Last Name


Include “and” before the final author
Examples:

Dayton, P.K. 1971. Competition, disturbance, and community organization: the
provision and subsequent utilization of space in a rocky intertidal community.
Ecological Monographs 41: 351-389.

Menge, B.A. and J.P. Sutherland. 1976. Species diversity gradients: synthesis of the
roles of predation, competition and temporal heterogeneity. The American
Naturalist 110: 351-369.
Citation Format

In-text examples:

One author:


Two authors:


… creatures exposed to rapid changes in environmental conditions displayed
heightened aggression, likely as a result of physiological stress (Kukui 2016)…
… demonstrating a rare occurrence of a virus forming a mutualistic
relationship with its host organism (Joy and Elm 1999)…
Three or more authors:

… bird populations have been in decline as a result of overharvesting for
human consumption (Oak et al. 1996)…
Final notes


Scientific name format

Capitalize genus, lowercase species

Italicize (underline when handwritten)

Examples: Homo sapiens, Ursus maritimus, Clione limacina
This class:

Spend time researching your topic

Topic approval
For next class


5 References Assignment

Five annotated references in Ecology format that you think will be useful for your
research paper

1 sentence on the goal of the article

2-3 sentences on important key points

1-2 sentences on how this article will be useful for your paper
Discussion 1 Questions

Due on Canvas before the next class
Literature Searching and Citations
Your review paper must include at least 10 total references, of which at least 8 must be primary literature (see Types of
Sources below for details). On September 18th, you will need to submit 5 of these references, each with a summary
paragraph, to verify you are on the right track.
Here are a few tips to help your search.
Use a database for your search: OneSearch and Google Scholar are two good choices for this class. These allow direct
access to electronic articles.
SDSU Library Databases
https://library.sdsu.edu/onesearch
Articles and Research Guides will let you search by subject area
Google scholar
http://scholar.google.com/
Scholar preferences (set to link to SDSU library access)
Subject Searching
Use keywords/topic related to the topic of interest and hit “search”. Putting search terms within quotation marks (e.g.
“invasive species”) will search for the phrase, rather than the individual words.
Narrowing your search
If your topic is too broad (searching “biodiversity” will result in nearly 50,000 results!), add more keywords using
operators (AND, OR, NOT). Example: “invasive species” AND “biodiversity”. This will return hundreds of results.
Try “climate change AND arctic tundra”. You will get
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