write a research proposal same as the attached pdf about the retrofitting + the elements of industry 4.0/ digitalization such as IOT, BIM, augmented reality etc) and prepare the table which is attached in the word documents with min 6 articles(a) Read the latest trend of topic related to retrofitting (in the area of sustainability)undefined(b) I can say the latest trend will be retrofitting + the elements of industry 4.0/ digitalization such as IOT, BIM, augmented reality etc) or related to indoor environmental quality for retrofitted building. undefined(c) Download a paper that only related to (b) undefined(d) make a Table of summary which I will share it with you in order for you to find your research gap. From the table, you need to proposed what will be the different of your study with other studies found from the papers downloaded in (c). undefined(e) research gap is where you found out that previous study have not vastly focused on certain area. It might be they don’t focus on developing database, they don’t focus in developing factors etc. So this will be the things you are going to do as your research. Research gap also can be to improvised the area that has been studies by other researchers. For instance you want to add on the elements of digitalization, to improved the model/framework. undefinedf) From the above work, you can start to write a proposal that consists of research background, problem statement, objective, aim, scope, brief methodology. undefinedg) Write a proposal because you need to present it with the panels on semester 2. You can either use the conventional Literature Review or SLR (systematic literature review) method. You can choose to divide the table into 8 categories namely:PhD Research Proposal
Faculty of Civil Engineering
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Prepared By:
Nur IzieAdiana binti Abidin
Assoc Prof Dr Rozana Zakaria
A rapid development of national economy and improvement of living standards has
turned to the issue of energy. When the economy is growth, urbanization is expected to
continually increase and thus the energy consumption will keep growing fast. Besides, when
the living standards rise, the users of the building will have their own way to maintain the
better comfort inside of the building which then brings a significant impact to the amount of
energy usage. In addition, the emerging economies and developing countries also has brings
to the increased demand for building services.
Energy has become a world debate and being a prominent issue as to deal with the
rising energy usage, energy cost, shortage of energy, the impetus to reduce the greenhouse
gas effect and global warming. Energy is required for serious attention as it is the
predominant sources in buildings. Building is approximately 40% responsible for the total
world annual consumption. Many countries and industries are now focusing on the new green
and renewable to resolve the energy issues. Thus, retrofitting of existing building provides an
opportunity to upgrade the current energy consumption in the building. Retrofitting involves
modifications to existing building to improve the energy efficiency as well as to reduce the
building operational costs. It presents as the largest potential for energy savings over the long
term by incorporating energy efficiency and renewable energy technology without
compromising the building comfort. It is a cornerstone of reducing the energy usage with
sustainability efforts together with economic stimulus packages.
Retrofitting also is one of the greatest opportunities and the key for more efficient
operation practices. It offers the perfect opportunity to improve the indoor environment
quality and in turns may have benefits to the occupant productivity. Other than that, by
implementing the building retrofitting, it also provides a multitude of benefit that extends for
more effective energy savings. It is because the building is undergoing upgrading
performance, comfortability, healthier, safer and the new technology retrofits adopted often
have better quality characteristics.
Research Background
As Malaysia pursuing to become a developed country in 2020, multibillion Ringgit
development projects have been planned. The investment involving multiple disciplines
which are among them is infrastructure development. The energy usage in building and
infrastructure development is expected to increase rapidly due to expansion of the economy
(Lincoln, 2006). There are many factors that contribute to the increase of building energy
consumption such as the increase in population, enhancement of building services, people
comfort level, and also the increase of time spent inside the buildings (Shahidan et. al, 2012).
As stated by Shafiea et. al (2011), the energy demand in Malaysia is increasing from year
1999 to 2009 which are 9690 MW and 16132 MW respectively. The ten years of time gap
already shown 66.5% tremendous increment of energy demand, thus more energy efficiency
action and efforts is needed.
Electricity comprises a variety of energy services such as heating, ventilation,
lighting, refrigerators and other electrical applicants. There are various sources of energy
which are fossil fuels, nuclear energy, solar radiation and hydro energy. In Malaysia, most of
the energy production is by using fossil fuel. Besides, in 2009, 94.5% of electricity in
Malaysia was being generated by using fossil fuel such as natural gas, coal, diesel, oil and
fuel oil. The combustion of the fossil fuels will release carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide,
sulfur dioxide and nitrous oxide gases into the atmosphere. These ‘greenhouse gases’ has
contributed to acid rain and global warming effects. It is because the more energy that being
consumed, the more it contributes to the negative environmental effect. Therefore, the most
efficient method to reduce the electricity in a building operation is crucially needed in order
to help in protecting our environment. Furthermore, it is also to overcome the issue of energy
demand as increasing of energy will exhaust the limited energy resources in the future.
(Shafiea et. al, 2011).
Problem Statement
Three main sectors that consume large electrical energy are industrial, transportation
and service sector. The service sector includes all commercial and public building such as
university, school, office, restaurant, hotels, hospitals, museums and others (Ahmad et.al,
2012). One of the commercial/public buildings that must be given attention in terms of
energy is university campus. In University campus building, energy efficiency has become a
critical issue because the electricity usage has always rapidly increased and the university
need to spend a considerable amount of money annually to support the electricity
consumption (Jomoah et. al, 2013). It has been estimated that in a smaller scale of higher
learning institution which has a population of 31,302 students able to produce 234,765tCo2
through the usage of electricity. Thus, it also shows that institution is among the major
contributor to greenhouse gas emissions (Tuan Pah Rokiah et.al, 2013).
Figure 1.0 shows the Institutional building energy consumption in Malaysia. The
higher usage of electricity consumption is coming from the HVAC system which is 45% and
followed by lighting, 42%. Another 10% is from other equipment and while 3% is from the
water heating (Mahlia, 2011).
Figure 1.0: Percentage of energy used in educational buildings
Source: Mahlia, 2011
Other than that, since 2007, the conversation of energy to all education centres has
been urged by the Ministry of Education Malaysia because in many Malaysian universities
the energy wastage tends to occur rapidly (Tuan Pah Rokiah et.al, 2013). Furthermore,
administrators in Malaysian universities also are concerned about the expensive monthly
electricity bill. Both energy managers from Universtiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) and
International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) have agreed that local universities
nowadays are facing serious energy wastage problems. Energy cost more than ten million
ringgit annually and this burdens the universities. Therefore, by reduce and manage energy
usage, it can give benefit to the Malaysian university that confront expensive energy bill
because of the large build up areas, large number of building users as well as comprehensive
facilities such as classrooms, offices, libraries and etc. Thus, it is needed to identify the
criteria of the potential building to be retrofit and which building has the most potential to
retrofit (Choong, 2009).
For the case of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), now it has two campuses. The
main campus is located in Skudai, Johor Baharu, while the branch campus is situated in Jalan
Semarak, Kuala Lumpur. The consumption of energy in the main campus of UTM buildings
was high due to the large number of buildings and populations (Ahmad et.al, 2012). Figure
1.1 show the electricity cost spends by UTM. Faculty is the highest energy consuming where
the annual electricity cost is $ 1,728,968, followed by College $ 1,262, 623 and office $
1,027, 489. While, in Figure 1.2, it shows that 60% of the energy is coming from the usage
air conditioning, 25% is from lighting and 15% from others equipment or system in the
building (Masilah, 2013).
Figure 1.1: Cost of electricity
Source: (Masilah, 2013)
Figure 1.2: Percentage of Energy
Sources: (Masilah, 2013)
Therefore, from the facts and figures, it can be realized that there are huge of energy
savings that could be done in university campuses by identifying if there is any potential for
retrofitting and their response for energy reduction. It is important to develop the retrofitting
technology as to enhance and culture of energy conservation, to improve the energy
efficiency, building intensity as well as the building performance. Besides, by identified the
initiative of building to be retrofit, it is useful for the building management to do further
actions in order to achieve a zero energy building.
Research Questions
1. What is the current demand of energy consumption in existing building of university
2. How much the university spends the electricity consumption/energy bill per year?
3. What are the potential measures that need to be taken in order to reduce energy
consumption in university campuses?
4. What is the current state of energy intensity in the existing building of university
5. What are the types of equipment/machinery appliances that are likely to influence the
building energy usage?
6. What are the strategies that can be made towards attaining zero energy building?
Aim and Objectives
The aim of this study is to develop a holistic initiative for decision making in
retrofitting on campuses building towards a zero net energy building. To achieve the research
aim the following objectives have been identified:
i. To identify the current situation and condition of energy consumption of existing
ii. To identify the retrofit initiatives that can provide energy saving
iii. To analyze the building energy intensity and propose retrofit initiatives and green
technologies to zero energy balance for existing building
iv. To develop holistic initiatives for decision making in retrofitting of zero energy
balance for existing building.
Research Scope and Limitation
This research will be carried out on building university campuses. It is purposely to
determine the current energy usage and the building energy intensity in order to study the
potential building to be retrofitted in the campuses. A comprehensive literature study on the
current situation of energy usage in university campuses and criteria of the building to be
retrofit will also be carried out.
This research will also consider on possible energy efficiency initiatives including
active and passive design retrofitting. The passive design potential is such as building
orientation, and green building landscape. As to achieve the zero energy building, renewable
energy will be included as part of the retrofitting initiative. The limitations of the research for
retrofitting an existing building are mostly coming from the technical difficulties and
financial constraints.
Brief Research Methodology
The research methodology approach is adopted to ensure that this study can be
executed accordingly. This study will be carried out in several steps in order to achieve the
research objectives. First and foremost, further understanding of the study must be done by
identifying the problem or issue related to the study. It is followed by the determination of
aim, objectives and scope of the study. The exploration of all information including literature
review will be executed through accessing the published journals, books, articles, previous
thesis and other sources in order to get an overview of the study.
For data collection, observation and record review will be conducted by collecting the
energy billing in order to determine the overall energy consumption of the building. Besides,
the in-situ energy audit also will be conducted for determination of the type of equipment and
machinery used in the building together with its effective hours of usage under typical
operations and the power usage required. All the collected data will assist in finding the
building energy intensity. The calculation of building energy intensity of the studied building
will be carried out by using energy simulation software.
The determination of energy intensity will help in identifying the largest energy usage
of the equipment and machinery in the building and also to determine the current demand of
operation. Based on the energy intensity result, the proposed energy efficiency retrofit
initiative that could be taken for the existing building will be determined. Then, a holistic
initiative for decision making in retrofitting will be conducted by using Multi Criteria
Decision Making analysis. All of this information will be presented in a form of diagram
together with calculation which will help in prioritizing the best retrofit initiatives for the
existing building to zero building energy.
Expected Findings
This study leads to the potential of retrofitting the university campuses as a zero
energy building by providing several findings. The first expected finding is to figure out the
current situation and condition of energy consumption in the university building campuses.
The second finding is to get the building energy intensity of the building and the amount of
energy that can be saved in the building. The third expected finding will figure out the
possible retrofit that can be carried out on the existing building by developing a holistic
initiative decision making in retrofitting. The result is expected in identifying the best or
optimum alternatives of retrofitting for the studied building to zero building energy.
Significance of study
The research shows an effort and support to a government policy as well as the
enhancement by the Ministry of Education in protecting the environment and save the energy
resources by reducing the energy consumption in campus building. In addition, many
universities currently are also committed to implement the energy efficiency and
conservation across the campus in order to create a more conducive campus for teaching,
research, learning and intellectual development. This study will show whether the university
building campuses have a potential to be retrofitted and to be a zero energy building. Besides
that, by identifying the initiative that could be taken to retrofit the building, it can be a guide
of investment to the owner of the building as the electric bill will be reduced and renewable
energy is generated. Therefore, this research is significance in reducing the energy
consumption, reducing the carbon emission and at the same time save the environment.
Original Contribution to the body of Knowledge
In order to overcome the increasing concern of today’s energy consumption, energy
savings, depletion rate of world energy reserve and environmental consideration, the Holistic
Initiative Decision Making in retrofitting can be applied as to enhance and improve the
sustainability of the built environment. It will be going a good starting point in existing
building especially in a higher learning institution in order to see it as a strong opportunity to
invest towards a zero energy building. The findings will provide a reliable guide for the
Higher Learning Institution regarding on the potential of building which would be possible to
be retrofit. Such findings will influence the target effective for sustainability in existing
buildings. Besides, the Decision Making also will become a provision in promoting and to
develop much more sustainable building campus. It will give some beneficial in identifying
the potential for improvement and ways to improve the efficiency for the entire built
environment for the campus. The decision making will be help to decide about the need for
new systematic system or technology. Other than that, the contribution of a decision making
process also will assist the Public or Private University and Colleges in obtaining the zero
energy building. The findings also can be generalized to other type of building that has
necessity and suitability like the institutional building.
Definition of Terms
Relating or concerned with wholes or with complete systems
rather than with the analysis, treatment or dissection into parts
Modifying existing equipment or structures with additional or
new components, members or technology
Zero energy building
A building with zero net energy consumption, meaning that the
total amount of energy used by the building on an annual basis
is roughly equal to the amount of renewable energy created on
the site.
Literature Review
Building Retrofitting
Retrofitting has become a comprehensive initiative and strategies to develop the
energy efficiency in building. It has been started to emerge throughout the country because
simultaneously retrofitting meet the environmental protection, economic development and
social goals (Foy & Rogers, 2008). Retrofitting is upgrading the existing building which is
partially or wholly occupied by improving the environmental and energy performance;
improve the quality and comfort of the natural light, air quality and noise (Campbell et.al,
A retrofit also is the requirement in replacing and upgrading the old building system
with new process and energy saving technology. It is the operational and physical upgrade of
building’s energy consuming equipment (Fulton et.al, 2012). Retrofitting in buildings will
play an important role in improving the energy performance and carbon reduction targets
(Stafford et.al, 2011). According to Wilkinson (2012), it is believed that the building retrofits
could enhance the sustainability to the built environment and contribute to the lower
greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and less use of resources.
Table 2.1 to Table 2.5 shows the Literature Review of retrofitting in existing Higher
Learning Institution. While, Table 2.6 shows the overall summary of previous research
regarding on retrofitting in Higher Learning Instution.
Retrofitting in Higher Learning Institution
Table 2.1: Retrofitting in University of Malaya
Title of
Life cycle cost
analysis and
period of
retrofit at the
of Malaya
Aim/ Purpose
To find the
potential energy
saving, life
cycle cost
analysis and
payback period
of the lighting
system in
buildings of the
University of
Retrofit Initiatives
Data Analysis
1. Replacing the T8
ballast with T8
electronic ballast
potential energy
savings and life
cycle cost
1. T8 electronic system, High performing T8 system
and T5 system can reduce the energy consumption up
to 17%, 31% and 40% respectively
2. Converting the
old T8 bulbs from
T8 18W and 36W
down to high
T8(HPT8) 17W and
32W and T5 14W
and 28W
3. Converting the
old energy guzzling
T8 bulbs to the new
T5 adapter
2. Converting the lamps to the electronic T8, the
operating cost is reduced to RM1,902, 528 per year.
3. High performing T8 system using 17W and 32 bulb
operate reduce in operating cost to RM1,585,112
4. T5 system show the operating cost reduce to
5. In terms of Payback period, T8 electronic only
required 0.689 year. For high performing T8 is 1.24
year and T8 required 1.95 year.
6. In terms of LCC, T8 having the highest amount
which is RM12,352, 669. For electronic T8
performing T8 is RM 11,025,195 and for high
performing T8 is RM 9,185,793. Lastly, for T5
systems the LCC is only required RM8,002,244 which
consider low cost compare to others and less operating
Table 2.2: Retrofitting in College of the Desert
Title of research
Aim/ Purpose
Research Method
Case study of a
Higher learning
Institution retrofit
project: College of
the Desert
Lighting Retrofit
Formulated a
energy reduction
Conducted a
review of the
infrastructure and
provided a list of
energy conserving
measures required
Retrofit Initiatives
1. Upgrading fixtures throughout the
campus with high-efficiency lamps,
luminaries where required also.
2. All metal halide and incandescent lamps
in classrooms and offices were replaced
with compact fluorescent lamps.
3. 400-watt metal halide luminaries were
replaced with high-output T5 fixtures,
yielding energy savings of 52 percent.
4. 32-watt T8 lamps were upgraded to highefficiency 25 or 28-watt T8 lamps with a
higher temperature of 5000K, using the
latest-generation programmable ballasts.
5. High-efficiency lamps were used in
combination with normal ballast factor
(0.88) ballasts.
Data Analysis
1. Energy
2. Annual
energy savings
3. Annual cost
4. Annual
energy bill
1. The campus has
reduced energy by 15
percent, far exceeding
the original target of 10
2. The annual energy
and cost savings is 170
MWh and $42,600.
3. With an annual
energy bill of over $1.1
million, the campus had
reduced energy costs
across campus, and the
lighting retrofit was an
effective way to get
energy savings in a way
that would not tax the
campus’ facility group
that consists of only two
full-time staff.
Table 2.3: Retrofitting in UC Berkeley’s University
Title of research
UC Berkeley’s
University Hall
wireless HVAC
retrofit brings the
campus one step
closer to its
climate neutrality
Aim/ Purpose
Research Method
1. To achieve
climate neutrality
Through a
2. To discovered
the portions of
University Hall
which frequently
over ventilated,
wasting both
electricity and
natural gas
Retrofit Initiatives
Vigilent Intelligent Energy Management
System retrofit systems in the constant air
volume (CAV) of ventilation systems.
The Vigilent System works taking
temperature readings throughout the
controlled zones using wireless sensors and
automatically modifying fan speeds via
variable frequency drives (VFDs) to achieve
desired space temperatures and ventilation
Data Analysis
1. Annual
energy cost
Reduced annual energy
costs 7%
2. Annual
energy savings
2. Annual energy
savings is 93,100 kWh
2. Peak load
3. Peak load reduction:
40.4 kW
3. Simple
payback period
4. Simple payback: 6
4. Annual
utility bill
5. Annual utility bill
savings $21,500
5. Greenhouse
gas emission
6. Greenhouse gas
emission reduction of 73
metric tons of CO2e
Table 2.4: Retrofitting in Boston University
Title of research
Aim/ Purpose
LED lighting
retrofit in Boston
To replace the
outdoor lights as
a part of a larger
energy saving
Research Method
Lighting survey
Retrofit Initiatives
1. Upgrading and replacing the old metal
halide bulbs with more energy efficient
light-emitting diode (LED) bulbs.
2. The 60W incandescent lamps were
also replaced with A19 LED bulbs
3. All halogen bulbs were replaced with
more efficient LED or compact fluorescent
(CFL) bulbs
4. All new buildings on campus are being
outfitted with energy efficient lighting, LED
Data Analysis
1. Energy
2. CO2
1. This project has
resulted in a savings of
5,794,883 kWh/year and
reduced 2,706 metric
tons of CO2e/year,
which equals 497 cars or
69,385 trees.
Table 2.5: Retrofitting in Melbourne University, Australia
Title of research
Aim/ Purpose
Energy Efficiency
and the
environment: the
potential for
energy efficient
lighting to save
energy and reduce
carbon dioxide
emissions at
To improve the
energy efficiency
of lighting
systems at
A lighting survey
was conducted in
every room in the
Retrofit Initiatives
1. Replacing the existing
ballast with electronic ballast
Data Analysis
1. Energy saving
2. Simple payback
2. Replacing the existing
globes and ballasts with T8
32W triphosphore globes and
magnetic ballast
3. Replacing the existing
globes and ballast with T8
32W triphosphore globes and
electronic ballast
4. Replacing the existing
fixtures with the new fixtures
T5 21W triphosphore globes
and electronic ballast.
3. Net present
4. Cost conserves
1. Electronic lighting
– Energy savings: 13.9%
– Simple payback time = >20 years
– Net Present Value after 20 years
= -$163 401
– Cost of conserve energy = 43.3 c/kWh
2. T8 Magnetic
– Energy savings: 20.5%
– Simple payback time = 11 years
– Net Present Value after 20 years
= -$3882
– Cost of conserve energy = 9.7 c/kWh
3. T8 Electronic Magnetic
– Energy savings: 24.4%
– Simple payback time = >20 years
– Net Present Value after 20 years
= -$141 764
– Cost of conserve energy = 25.9 c/kWh
4. T5
– Energy savings: 64.9%
– Simple payback time = >20 years
– Net Present Value after 20 years
= -$362 761
– Cost of conserve energy = 23.4 c/kWh
Table 2.6 shows the summary of previous research regarding on the Retrofitting in Higher Learning Institution. Retrofitting has
researched by many, but most of the researchers are only focusing on one initiative of retrofitting where they are not offering multi-choices of
retrofit initiatives in the existing building. Therefore, this research is conducted to implement the holistic retrofitting for Higher Learning
Table 2.6: The Summary of Literature review Retrofittings in Higher Learning Institution
Retrofit Initiatives
Indiana State University
College of education
University of Malaya
U.S colleges
College of Desert
Boston University
Rome Italy University
UC berkeley’s University
University of Mexico
Melbourne University
University of Korea
Curtin University Sarawak
University of Guangdong
Kingsville Texas University
University of Malaya
Mauritius University
School building in Northen
Stanford University
Hong Kong Universities
Universiti of Lagos
Research Methodology
Research Design and Procedure
Objective 1:
Identify the
Objective 2:
Identify retrofit
initiative that
provides energy
Objective 3:
Objective 4:
To develop holistic
initiatives for
decision making to
zero energy balance
Observation and
energy record
review of:
In situ energy audit of:
-Electricity billing
– Required power by each equipment
– Types of equipment used
– Period of operation (hours)
Calculate the observe
energy intensity
Calculate the observe
energy intensity
BEI software
Proposed retrofit initiative
Multi Criteria Decision Making
Holistic initiatives for decision making in retrofitting
of Zero Energy Building
Subject or Data Sources
3.2.1 Literature Review
Literature Review provides a knowledge regarding on retrofitting issue as it gives an
overview of what has been studied, argued and established. It evaluates the previous and
current research in regard to how relevant and/or useful it is to relate to own research.
Academic publication such as journal, books and etc were referred to search all the
information. The main sources in obtaining academic publication are in the main library,
named Perpustakaan Sultanah Zanariah, UTM. However, most of the sources are obtained
online via library portal, e-Books and online search engine. Basically, all of the data obtained
will gives an insight into facts which is useful for this study. The literature review is done by
obtaining information regarding on the first objective which is current energy consumption in
existing building. It is conducted based on the case study of Higher Learning Institution.
Then, the literature review is continually conducted to assist in obtaining information for
second and third objective which is to identify the retrofit initiatives that can provide energy
savings and the building energy intensity.
3.2.1 Preliminary Survey
At this stage, the building plan will be reviewed in order to determine the gross floor area
of building and other information related to the building. It is important to have a preliminary
survey in order to learn as much as possible about the building characteristic before the
energy record review and in-situ energy audit started.
3.2.2 Energy Record Review
The purpose of energy record review is to identify the existing energy consumption of
the building. All this information will be performed by collecting the historic utility data
(electricity billing). It will help to identify the pattern of energy usage in the building and
easy to spot the times when it’s likely the energy is being wasted. Besides, the electricity
billing also will help in identifying the actual energy intensity of the building and thus it helps
to identify the energy reduction potential of the building.
3.2.3 In situ Energy Audit
In situ energy audit is the primary opportunity for the researcher to collect all the
information regarding on the energy use in the building. It involves in identifying the types
of equipment and machinery used in the buildings and to survey the building’s energy
consuming equipment. This should include the lighting, air-conditioning and etc. Prior to
that, the period of operation (hours) for equipment or machinery under typical operation will
also being observed. Besides, the power needed by each equipment and machinery will be
identified by using information from academic sources. With the information in hand, the
data collected will be used to briefly describe the observed energy intensity and thus the
identification of potential building efficiency measures can be possibly measures.
3.2.5 Case Study
Case study will be conducted as to obtain a possible sources regarding on the existing
building. It allows the exploration and understanding about the current state of the building.
The information collected during the case study is important as it will help in identifying the
possible retrofit initiative that can be implemented in the building. Besides, a case study also
will be conducted by having an exploratory in existing Higher Learning Institution who has
been implemented retrofit initiatives in order to get an overview of their successful approach.
Data Analysis
The analysis of the data is to merge all the data obtained. The collected data will be
analysed are as listed below:
3.3.1 Building Energy Intensity Measurement
By using the data collected through preliminary survey, in-situ audit and energy
record review, the Building Energy Intensity in existing building will be identified by using
energy simulation software. The comparative result between the actual and observed energy
intensity can be used for the determination of energy reduction that can be done in the
building in order to propose the retrofit initiatives. The basic calculation of energy intensity is
based on the following formula:
a) Calculation of Actual Building Energy Intensity
= Total energy consumption a year (kWh/year)
Total Gross Floor Area (m2)
b) Calculation of Observe Building Energy Intensity
Building energy intensity = Total energy usage____ kWh/m2/year
Total Gross Floor Area
*Total energy usage = Power of each equipment and machinery x Effective hours of use
c) Comparative data of energy intensity
Energy reduction = Building energy intensity (Actual – Observed) x gross floor area
3.3.2 Holistic Initiatives for Decision Making in Retrofitting
After the identification of the largest energy usage of the equipment and the
machinery in the building, the retrofit initiatives for the existing building will be identified.
An appropriate Multi Criteria Decision Making method will be used which to help in
assessed and reliably decide the most comprehensive retrofitting from a set of proposed
retrofit measures for the existing building. The Multi Criteria Decision Making also will help
in gaining an accurate value and result as well as assist to prioritize the retrofit options.
The retrofit alternatives will be in the form of energy efficiency (active or passive
initiatives) together with consideration on renewable energy. In order to suggest a new
retrofit technology of the building, the list of suitable technology together with other
variables/advantages will be prepared and the evaluation is based on priority.
Research Schedule
The energy saving retrofits in existing building are currently widely considered for
energy reduction target. It will give a huge contribution to the sustainability since the
building energy consumption often takes more than the total required level. Retrofitting of
existing buildings also will play a vital role for fundamental changes to be made in the
commercial building especially in Higher Learning Institution. It has now become an
opportunity to make an effort to improve the current building conditions in every sense and
ensure a better built environment.
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What you must do know:
(a) Read the latest trend of topic related to retrofitting (in the area of sustainability)
(b) I can say the latest trend will be retrofitting + the elements of industry 4.0/ digitalization such as IOT,
BIM, augmented reality etc) or related to indoor environmental quality for retrofitted building.
(c) Download a paper that only related to (b)
(d) make a Table of summary which I will share it with you in order for you to find your research gap.
From the table, you need to proposed what will be the different of your study with other studies found
from the papers downloaded in (c).
(e) research gap is where you found out that previous study have not vastly focused on certain area. It
might be they don’t focus on developing database, they don’t focus in developing factors etc. So this will
be the things you are going to do as your reaearch. Research gap also can be to improvised the area that
has been studies by other researchers. For instance you want to add on the elements of digitalisation, to
improved the model/framework.
f) From the above work, you can start to write a proposal that consists of research background, problem
statement, objective, aim, scope, brief methodology.
g) Write a proposal because you need to present it with the panels on semester 2.
You can either use the conventional Literature Review or SLR (systematic literature review) method. You
can choose to divide the table into 8 categories namely:
Sample – If applicable
Comments – Here is where you need to explain what had been done and what is the gap/limitation .
Based on this table, you will be able to connect-the-dots and get an overall idea to produce a problem

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