I am dealing with covid and I do not have the mental strength to work on this assignmentFor this Assignment, you will examine statistical significance and meaningfulness based on sample statements.To prepare for this Assignment:Review the Week 5 Scenarios found in this week’s Learning Resources and select two of the four scenarios for this Assignment.For additional support, review the Skill Builder: Evaluating P Values and the Skill Builder: Statistical Power, which you can find by navigating back to your Blackboard Course Home Page. From there, locate the Skill Builder link in the left navigation pane.For this Assignment:Critically evaluate the two scenarios you selected based upon the following points:Critically evaluate the sample size.Critically evaluate the statements for meaningfulness.Critically evaluate the statements for statistical significance.Based on your evaluation, provide an explanation of the implications for social change.Use proper APA format and citations, and referencing.You will most likely need the IBM SPSS softwareRSCH 8210 Week 4
Confidence Interval Assignment
December 26, 2020
Prior to 1981, a handful of socioeconomic studies were conducted in six European
countries to document and understand public opinion of a variety of social topics and how those
opinions changed over time. Topics surveyed included religion, gender equality, income levels
and poverty, conflict and crime, public services, fairness and equality of the judicial system,
government and the democratic process.
In 1981, Ronald F Inglehart of the University of Michigan founded a non for profit
research group “World Values Surveys ” (WVS) in Stockholm Sweden with the charter of
expanding upon those original European surveys to understand how opinions varied by culture
and location. The ultimate goal of the WVS was to present policy makers with much needed
data to assist developing countries, to identify and quantify reasons behind civil unrest, and to
understand the motivations behind various atrocities (such as war, genocide, and terrorism) so
that society may predict and guide developing nations away from those behaviors . The results
of these surveys were called “barometers”.
In 1999, the WVS rolled out their values surveys to the African contentment and to the
Muslim communities contained within the African nations. Again, with the goal of
understanding the current status of public opinion and how that opinion was changing over time.
The tabulated surveys were called the “Afrobarometer ”.
In this analysis, the age of 51143 respondents to the Afrobarometer surveys were
investigated with SPSS software . Figure 1 is an “area frequency” plot of the data. One the y
axis is the total number of respondents of the age given on the x axis. The plot clearly shows a
log normal distribution most likely due to the minimum age of 18 required for survey response.
Figure 1: age frequency plot of Afrobarometer survey respondents
A second way of looking at the data is with a box plot (figure 2). For that plot the data is
divided into quartiles of equal number of respondents. The lowest line (at age = 18) is the
minimum age of the respondents. The Q1 line is the dividing line between the youngest 25% of
respondents and the oldest 75% of respondents (25% are younger than Q1 and 75% are older
than Q1). The median line is the value for which 50% of respondents are younger and 50% are
older. The Q3 line is the divider between the lower 75% and the upper 25%. This plot shows
50% of the respondents were between 18 and 34 years old while 75% were between the ages of
18 and 47. People ages 48 and older only represented 25% of the respondents. Meaning, that
group of people might be underrepresented if the actual age distribution of the population
differed from those values.
Median = 34.0
Figure 2: age box plot of Afrobarometer survey respondents
And finally the mean age and confidence interval around the mean age were determined
using SPSS on the same data set. The results are tabulated in figure 3 below. The mean age
was determined to be 37.19 with a 95% confidence interval of 37.07 to 37.32 years
(approximately 37.19 ± 0.125 rounded). The confidence interval tells us that there is a 95%
chance the true mean lies within that interval .
Figure 3: descriptive statistics for Age of respondent to Afrobarometer
 “World Values Survey,” [Online]. Available: http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/wvs.jsp. [Accessed
26 12 2020].
 “Afrobarometer,” [Online]. Available: http://www.afrobarometer.org/.
 W. Wagner, Using IBM SPSS statistics for research methods and social science statistics, 6th edition,
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2016.
 e. McClave, Statistics for Business and Economics, 13th edition, Pearson, 2018.
RSCH 8210 Week 3
Descriptive Analysis Assignment
December 20, 2020
I changed my variables from the week 2 assignment, because I felt that there was not
much that I could do with those variables. For this assignment I wanted to use the variables of
high school students and the geographical location of the school.
The longitudinal data set displays information about the students at different high
schools. The variables I selected; geographic location and socioeconomic status of the students
will display as the X1 Region and X1ses. The variable X1 Region is a qualitative variable. I am
utilizing it to classify different high schools according to their location within the region. Each
location has a different code. West (4), South (3), Midwest (2), and Northeast (1). This display
provides an acceptable visual representation in the frequency bar. The number of high schools
are shown in each region. In figure 1 the number in the South region is higher and lower in the
Northwest/ West regions.
A continuous variable is the second variable. The qualitative variable is represented by
socioeconomic status or wealth in tat specific region. A polygon line provides the best
representation because it shows already existing trends sown in the database. In figure 2, the data
shows a curved shape that could lead to the suggestion of the data following a normal
distributing report. The average socioeconomic status if considering the chart representation is
Having a true understanding of the trend of data proves to be vital from a societal point of
view. The visuals that are presented highlights the problems that can affect the Northeast and
West regions because of the lack of high schools in these regions. An implication of social
change could be the impact of availability of jobs in the area for lower income residents. This
will provide more funding for schools to provide additional resources such as afterschool
programs, tutoring, and stem programs. Having more schools in the region will also change the
education completion level would in the long run affect the economy.
This visual display the categorial variable providing representation of students in different
Continuous variable representing the polygon line of socioeconomic status composite of students
Frankfort-Nachmias, C., & Leon-Guerrero, A. (2018). Social statistics for a diverse society (8th
ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Wagner, W. E. (2016). Using IBM® SPSS® statistics for research methods and social science
statistics (6th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
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