Generate a detailed task analysis to help the person remember or to teach the person how to complete the task.Follow all the steps from the reading on task analysis. You do not need to turn in the question answers…just do them for yourself.The task analysis should be designed for a skill or a social skill such as making friends, self-determination skills such as how to learn self-help skills or independent living skills. Perhaps the parent of the child or the child wants to learn a hobby, or how to become a model, or learn how to dance. Depending upon the age of the child, the parents and the child may want to learn special things for the future. There are no right or wrong answers.Make sure you indicate whether the future goal (s) are what the parent wants for the child and which ones are the child’s goals.If you are interviewing an adult it would be his/her future desires.It is likely that many of you have not completed a task analysis before this assignment. Therefore, you will have to read the document posted in this week’s assignment for background information. There are two documents to read for background knowledge.Again, you may reach out to your classmates for help with this but please don’t turn in the same task analysis. Because every child is different, the task steps will need to fit the child’s physical abilities. Directions: When you write a task analysis for your student/child/adult, please think about their age, the skill, and which skills the person already knows. Then create a document that lists each step for completing the skill. Depending on the age and the skill level of your student, your task analysis list might be 5 steps or 25 steps. Everyone’s will be different depending on the specific individual. Task analysis should be something that your student needs to learn in order to move towards their later life goals.Dr. Vickie J Mitchell
Montgomery, Texas
TASK ANALYSIS FORM
Date:
Job Coach:
Student:
Skill/Competency:
Learning Environment (Area):
Work Task:
Task Analysis
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Steps
Date:
Date:
Date:
Date:
Date:
KEY TO PROMPTS:
I = Independent
V= Verbal Prompt
P = Physical Prompt
M = Model
G = Gesture
X = Incorrect Response
Sources: (1) Wheeler, J. A way to work. Attainment Company, Inc.; (2)Brooke, Inge, Armstrong, Wehman. Supported
employment handbook. Virginia Commonwealth University; (3) Martin, Mithaug, Oliphint, Husch, Frazier. Self-directed
employment. Paul H. Brookes Publishing , Co.; Wehman & Kregel. Functional Curriculum, Pro-Ed.
Dr. Vickie J Mitchell
Montgomery, Texas
TASK ANALYSIS FORM- Pedestrian Skills
Date:
Job Coach:
Student:
Skill/Competency: Travel Training – Pedestrian
Learning Environment (Area): Community and neighborhood
Work Task: The student will use safe pedestrian skills to walk from a point of origin to a
destination.
Task Analysis
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Steps
Date:
Date:
Date:
Date:
Date:
Identify destination within
walking distance
Determine appropriate
route (avoid freeways and
major roads)
Determine amount of time
needed to walk to
destination
Determine needed arrival
time (if needed)
Begin walk at the
appropriate time
At intersections, watch for
green light and “walk
icon”.
Look both ways for
vehicles
Cross street at the
appropriate time
When meeting on-coming
pedestrians, walk on the
right side of the sidewalk
Recognizes when he/she
has reached destination
KEY TO PROMPTS:
I = Independent
V= Verbal Prompt
P = Physical Prompt
M = Model
G = Gesture
X = Incorrect Response
Sources: (1) Wheeler, J. A way to work. Attainment Company, Inc.; (2)Brooke, Inge, Armstrong, Wehman. Supported
employment handbook. Virginia Commonwealth University; (3) Martin, Mithaug, Oliphint, Husch, Frazier. Self-directed
employment. Paul H. Brookes Publishing , Co.; Wehman & Kregel. Functional Curriculum, Pro-Ed.
Dr. Vickie J Mitchell
Montgomery, Texas
Sources: (1) Wheeler, J. A way to work. Attainment Company, Inc.; (2)Brooke, Inge, Armstrong, Wehman. Supported
employment handbook. Virginia Commonwealth University; (3) Martin, Mithaug, Oliphint, Husch, Frazier. Self-directed
employment. Paul H. Brookes Publishing , Co.; Wehman & Kregel. Functional Curriculum, Pro-Ed.
Task Analysis
Definition:
The process of breaking down a complex task into its smaller steps or components.
Tasks with many steps or components may be divided into phases for teaching purposes.
(Alberto & Troutman, 2003)
Rationale:
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) may not learn some skills in the same way as
their peers. It is sometimes necessary to break down a complex skill into smaller steps in order
to meet the learning needs of the child. A task analysis does not need to be used for every skill
but can be useful when attempting to teach a complex skill or to see with which step a child
may be having difficulty (e.g. getting dressed and tooth brushing). The number of steps
involved in a task analysis will depend on the child’s ability. Some children may require many
steps while others only a few (Alberto & Troutman, 2003).
Also Known As:

Skill break down

Steps involved in
teaching a new skill

Sequencing
You’re already doing it
by…

Teaching the steps
necessary for making a
peanut butter sandwich

Modeling the steps
necessary to respond to
greetings

Following a recipe

Teaching the steps
necessary for brushing teeth
How to Develop a Task Analysis
1. Complete the task yourself or watch someone else and record the steps
2. Determine the starting point based on your child’s ability
3. Identify small steps so that your child can succeed
4. Go through steps with another person (i.e. parents can complete the sequence of steps
with each other). If the person can perform the skill being taught, then the skill has been
successfully broken down
5. Monitor your child’s performance
Autism Services 2012
ABA for Families
PAGE 2
TASK ANALYSIS
ABA FOR FAMILIES
Use Task Analysis when:
 Teaching new multi-step skills
 When a child is not reaching independence on a skill (the child may be stuck on 1 or 2 steps
of the sequence)
Chaining
After completing a task analysis for a multiple-step skill, it is important to determine which
teaching method would be the most appropriate given the child and the specific skill. Many
skills can be taught using forward or backward chaining. Since backwards chaining leads to
immediate reward for task completion, it is generally the more effective approach.
Forward Chaining
This approach involves teaching a skill beginning with the first step, and
then teaching each successive step one at a time until the entire skill has
been learned. It is particularly useful when a child has learned the early
steps of a sequence, and/or it is important the skill is learned in a forward
sequence. For example; if the skill is for the child to tie their shoe, the first
skill to target would be to put their foot in the shoe, once that skill is
acquired, your child would be expected to put their foot into their shoe, and
tie the laces into a bow.
Backward Chaining
This approach involves teaching a skill beginning with the last step, and then teaching the
immediately preceding steps one at a time until the entire skill has been mastered. One of
the benefits of this method is the child is successfully and independently completing a skill
which may be more intrinsically motivating and rewarding. It is important to reinforce your
child upon completion of the task. Skills such as zipping up a zipper, setting a table, and
learning their home phone number can all be taught using backwards chaining. With the
washing hands example below the first skill to be targeted is to dry hands, and once that
skill has been acquired they will start to turn off the water independently and dry their hands.
PAGE 3
TASK ANALYSIS
ABA FOR FAMILIES
F.A.Q
Why do I have to write out the steps to the task?
When teaching a new task, smaller steps can be overlooked. Listing the steps
prior to teaching can be helpful to determine which steps to start with, ensuring
successful progress towards the goal.
A task analysis is an easy way to determine your child’s current level of ability.
It is important to also monitor your child’s progress to ensure that learning is
taking place.
What skill or task is the best to break down?
All skills can be broken down into teachable steps. A new skill or a task that your child may be
having difficulty acquiring can be a good starting point.
Where do I start when trying to teach a new skill?
Most children learn rules and routines by observing others in their
environment and following the parents’ instructions and cues. For children
with ASD, this may not be enough.
To help a child learn the steps involved in the skill, it may be helpful to
provide him/her with a visual breakdown of each step. Depending on your
child’s skill level he/she may require a pictorial or scripted sequence of the
steps.
Determine whether the task would be best taught using forward or backward
chaining and begin teaching the appropriate step. When your child is able to
complete a step in the sequence/chain, teach the next sequential step,
chaining with the already learned step(s). Reinforce any independent Inviting a friend to play
1. Walk over to your friend
response and successful completion of the task.
2. Stand close to your friend
3. Call your friend’s name
4. Make eye contact
5. Ask your friend “Do you want to play?”
References:
Alberto, A.A., & Troutman, A.C. (2003). Applied behavior analysis for teachers. (6th edition).
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