Structural functionalism focuses on ______, such as the family, religion, or education.Group of answer choicesbelief systemssocial constructssocial institutionscultureWhat is the conflict perspective?Group of answer choicesA focus on the social institutions that are embedded in societyA view of society in which people compete for social and economic resourcesA view of society that consists of interdependent parts that work together to promote common goodA focus on the interactions between individualsWhat is an example of a manifest function of the family?Group of answer choicesowning propertypromoting religious valuesupholding marriage as a social institutionsocializing children
A symbolic interactionist would most likely study a corporation’s decision to hire a white applicant over a better qualified racial minority by studying the ______.Group of answer choicesthe experiences of both applicantshiring practices of several other major corporationshiring policy of the corporationracial makeup of the corporation’s employees
Structural functionalism is a theory that ______.Group of answer choiceswas developed by Max Weber to explain inequalitiessuggests individuals work to promote their interests instead of society’sdemonstrates that society is comprised of disjointed beliefs and ritualssees society as a complex system whose parts are interdependent
Structural functionalist theorists view society as harmonious, whereas conflict theorists view society as ______.Group of answer choicestraditionalequaloppressiveorderedWhat is the symbolic interactionist perspective?Group of answer choicesIt studies the way components of society work to everyone’s mutual benefit.It studies the conflict that occurs with inequality.It studies the way status levels separate groups from one another.It studies the social construction of reality through the use of shared symbols.According to symbolic interactionists, how is culture created?Group of answer choicesThose in power create culture based on what they want.Culture is created from the class structure and functions of society.Society creates laws for people to follow, which leads to culture.Groups of individuals create culture through shared symbols.Conflict theorists do NOT see societal problems as a result of individual bad behavior.Group of answer choicesTrueFalseWhat is the most common form of data collection among sociologists?Group of answer choicessurveys and interviewsethnographic studyhistoricalobservation
The scientific method is best described as ______.Group of answer choicesan explanation made on the basis of limited evidence and informationa statement or theory that is proven through argumentationreliance on traditional authority and previous researchsteps researchers take, including developing a question, and collecting, analyzing, and reporting dataA professor conducts a study using students as participants. Some of the students wanted to drop out of the study, but the professor told them they needed to stay in the study in order to provide valid results. What was violated in this study?Group of answer choicesinformed consentobservational methodempirical researchcontent analysisHow would a researcher conduct an ethnographic study about people from a different culture?Group of answer choicesby studying previous research about this cultureby traveling to that culture and learning about how they liveby looking at relationships between this culture and another cultureby creating a series of questions to ask members of that cultureQualitative methods rely on ______, while quantitative methods rely primarily on ______.Group of answer choicesobservation; surveyssurveys; interviewsnumbers; words and imageswords and images; numbersA cultural group that exists within another, larger culture is a ______.Group of answer choiceshomogenous culturematerial culturefixed culturesubcultureThe Ku Klux Klan is an example of a ______.Group of answer choiceslow culturemain culturecountercultureradical cultureWhich situation best describes what a role is in society?Group of answer choicesa socially expected behavior usually determined by an individual’s statusthe lack of power based on the increasing poverty of middle class workersthe type of job someone has and how much money they receive for ita gendered performance based on opportunityThe ongoing process of learning the social expectations of male and female behavior, roles, and appearance in one’s culture refers to gender ______.Group of answer choicesfluiditysegregationsocializationexpressionThe process of socialization occurs through social interactions with other members of a society.Group of answer choicesTrueFalseDue to budget cuts, a boss is forced to fire an employee who is a close friend. The boss is most likely experiencing ______.Group of answer choicesrole strainsocial dissonancea mixed role situationrole conflictThe ______ perspective perceives deviance as socially constructed and focuses on power dynamics in determining who is considered deviant.Group of answer choicesanomieconflictsymbolic interactionistfunctionalistWhich theory notes that someone is defined as deviant because others react to the person as such?Group of answer choicesstructural functionalistconflictlabelingbiasedA white business executive is convicted of embezzlement but is given probation over imprisonment. A minority youth is convicted of petty theft and is sentenced to three months in jail. How would the conflict perspective explain this?Group of answer choicesThe businessman is able to pay the money back, so no crime was committed.The in-person theft is statistically more important.The legal system tends to punish deviance by the poor and minorities more harshly.The businessman has committed a minor wrongdoing.Structural functionalists believe that inequality ______.Group of answer choicesserves an important purpose in societyresults in the wrong segment of society receiving the most rewardswill not continue as globalization has more impact on societyis nonproductive and unnecessary for societyKarl Marx argued that members of the proletariat class are convinced, through the control of media, that the bourgeoisies deserve their wealth and that if they work hard, they too can become rich. Marx termed this which of the following?Group of answer choicesFalse consciousnessFalse dichotomyFalse social constructFalse ideologyWhich example demonstrates intergenerational mobility?Group of answer choicesA young female graduates from college and gets a high paying job at her mother’s law firm.An older male is laid off due to a recession.A female is promoted to CEO after working for the same company for 25 years.A young male grows up in poverty and eventually becomes CEO of a large company.______ is the unofficial barrier that prevents women from advancing to higher levels of power within a work organization.Group of answer choicesThe gender wage gapA glass ceilingGender role confusionA glass elevatorHow would a structural functionalist explain gender?Group of answer choicesGender and sex are basically one and the same, and are used to define roles in society.Gender and sex are distinct and separate concepts that can sometimes work against each other.Gender plays no role in the distribution of power.Gender identifies the sex of the individual and sex identifies their roles in society.How does conflict theory view the division of labor by gender?Group of answer choicesMen and women work in jobs that match their intellectual ability.Women choose jobs that are more nurturing and supportive, which is in line with their personality traits.Men and women both fulfill roles that help society continue to prosper.Men have more opportunity in higher paying professions, which leaves women with less money and power.Gender ______ occurs as an individual learns the expectations of being a man or woman in a certain place and time.Group of answer choicessegregationscriptsocializationrole conflictShared language, religion, and national origin of a particular group of people refers to ______.Group of answer choicesethnicitysocietyraceclass
An elderly man who identifies as Mexican recalls how the U.S. Census in 1940 categorized Mexican people as “white.” This is an example of ______.Group of answer choicesfixed categories of racesocially constructed racefluid categories of ethnicitybiologically constructed race
Which description best characterizes the concept of race?Group of answer choicesa socially constructed category based on perceived differences due to physical appearancea fixed biological basis for racial classificationa concrete genetic difference along racial linesa group of people sharing the same physical and social traits
Which description best characterizes the concept of race?Group of answer choicesa socially constructed category based on perceived differences due to physical appearancea fixed biological basis for racial classificationa concrete genetic difference along racial linesa group of people sharing the same physical and social traits
Pluralist theory sees the state as a ______ forum, where different groups make their preferences known.Group of answer choicesantagonisticcompetitivedestabilizingneutralConflict theorists see the state as a ______ forum, where a dominant elite is able to control policy.Group of answer choicesneutraldiffusedbalancedbattlegroundA social unit that provides a basis for emotional bonds and consists of a group of people who take responsibility for one another refers to a(n) ______.Group of answer choicesfamilyextended familymultigenerational familynuclear family
According to the ______ perspective, families serve as a socialization agent and provide social stability and social harmony.Group of answer choicesfeministconflictstructural functionalismsymbolic interactionistStudies show that the strongest predictor for educational success is ______.Group of answer choicesan individual’s personality and sense of work ethicthe parents’ education and income levelsencouragement from teachers and administratorssocialization skills and the ability to make friends
According to the ______ perspective, public schools promote social mobility, as well as enable everyone to succeed and contribute to society.Group of answer choicesfunctionalistsymbolic interactionistconflictfeministAccording to sociological research on schools, in addition to inequality between wealthy and poor schools, inequality in the classroom occurs daily. Which group is at the greatest risk for racial bias inside the classroom?Group of answer choicesWhite malesBlack malesAsian malesAsian femalesBased on secularization theory, how would modernization impact religious organizations in a technologically advanced country?Group of answer choicesby reducing the influence religion has on societyby promoting religion to all areas of the worldby increasing acceptance of different religionsby increasing congregation members online
Which major sociological theory understands religion to be an institution that creates norms, customs, and practices that maintain social order?Group of answer choicessymbolic interactionismconflict theorycritical theorystructural functionalismWhich type of theorist would note that religion helps maintain systems of social stratification and religious figures who hold power use it to exploit disenfranchised populations?Group of answer choicesstructural functionalistfeministsymbolic interactionistconflictBlack Lives Matter is an example of a(n) ______ social movement.Group of answer choicesredemptiverevolutionaryreformativealternativeThe text describes two ways that may cause social movements to fail: repression and ______, which occurs when the leadership of the movement begins to identify with the targets of social change and starts to work more for them than for the original movement goals.Group of answer choicesappropriationco-optationadoptionconfiscationA woman living in a rural neighborhood where fracking is occurring wants to bring attention to this problem. She begins calling neighbors and trying to get them to help. Which stage of organizing a social movement does this describe?Group of answer choicescoordinationcoalescencemobilizationinteraction




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