Assessment 3, this course talks about Graduation research. ” law major”research proposal word doc and ppt and what should i say while presenting 1500 – 2000 worddue date: 7 febtopic:topic: Over reliance on religious doctrine as a foundation of law and criminal punishment.The legal problem is that Saudi Arabia does not have a codified criminal law, and the criminal law is based upon Sharia law which sometimes some people get away with criminal acts, so there are some loopholes that lead to the failure to apply the appropriate punishment to the criminal, such as the killer’s reliance on blood money for premeditated murder. The family of the murdered also began to trade blood money and put in large sums of money. Another example is honor killing a killer may be sentenced to a reduced punishment due to anger. In other countries, criminal law is not integrated with religious conventions. This is not the case in Saudi Arabia, where criminal laws are either based on the Quran and Sunnah or cannot contradict the tenets found in these texts. my research will seek to compare the criminal law and procedures of Saudi Arabia and a Western country like the United States to see which system offers a fairer and more reasonable criminal law procedure and criminal punishment. A shift towards a separation between law and religion could benefit the Saudi legal system in the long run.-Your Case:
Exercise No. 1
Learning Outcome Assessment III
STEP #5: Based on the foregoing, prepare a written report to assess
what your client needs / objectives and your next course of action.
Model EU Bilateral Investment Treaty and the Reform of International Investment Protection Regime.
In the light of the recent changes to the EU law brought by the Lisbon Treaty 2009, this research project seeks to focus
on issues relating to the EU’s Common Commercial Policy (CCP) and the impact that the latest EU Treaty amendments
may have on the future of international investment law. The primary area of the analysis will be the inclusion of matters
relating to Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the scope of Article 207 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European
Union (TFEU). The main research questions concern the reform of international investment protection regime which is
likely be triggered by the future emergence of the model EU Bilateral Investment Treaty (BIT).
The official Communication 1 released by the European Commission in 2010 sets the direction for the new EU common
investment policy. The main objectives of this new policy are to improve foreign investment rights for all European
investors and to attain a level playing field in investment protection standards across all 27 member states 2 . The
Commission also aims to achieve a greater degree of integration between investment liberalisation and investment
protection 3, as well as implement ‘state-of-the art’ investor state dispute settlement system 4.
In relation to the substantive rules that the EU seeks to include in its future BIT the Commission lists standard provisions
commonly found in investment protection agreements, such as: ‘most-favoured-nation treatment’, ‘national treatment’,
‘fair and equitable treatment’, ‘full security and protection’, ‘umbrella clause’, protection against unlawful expropriation,
as well as free capital and payments transfers 5. Moreover, consistently with the objectives of the TFEU, and in line with
the current trends in the treaty practice, 6 the EU seeks to use its new investment protection agreement to pursue some of
its public policy objectives relating to protection of the environment, labour standards, cultural diversity, consumer
protection and human rights 7 . The Commission also proposed ambitious amendments to the investor-state dispute
settlement system and expressed a wish for the EU to become a member of the Convention on the Settlement of
Investment disputes between States and Nationals of Other States (ICSID) 8 .
The Commission has a challenging task ahead of not only finding a consensus amongst the investment protection rules
contained in almost 1200 BITs, but also improving the effectiveness of currently existing investment protection regime.
Since the BIT’s concluded individually by the EU member states constitute over a half of the investment agreements
currently in force 9 the development of the model EU BIT is expected to have major implication on the future of
investment protection regime worldwide.
Jan Kleinheisterkamp wrote that the “the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty in 2009 has shaken the European
landscape of investment treaty law” 10, paraphrasing this statement this research project seeks to examine to what extent
the Lisbon Treaty changes will ‘shake’ international landscape of investment treaty law. Therefore, the main research
question concerns the reform of the customary investment protection rules that will be brought by the EU’s future model
In addition, the research will explore matters concerning EU’s future involvement in the investor-state arbitration. Since,
to date the EU has not played a major role in this area, which was acknowledged by the Commission in its official
Communication 11, there are number of technical difficulties relating to the EU joining ICSID Convention 12, which is
The official Communication from the Commission states that the Union’s future investment policy will integrate both investment liberalisation and
protection and will incorporate investor-state dispute settlement mechanism. Commission, ‘Communication from the Commission to the Council, the
European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, Towards a Comprehensive European
International Investment Policy’, (Communication), COM (2010) 343 final, 5
Rudolf Dolzer, Christoph Schreuer, Principles of International Investment Law, (OUP 2008), 24-26.
Communication, n 1, 9.
Julien Chaisse , ‘Promises and Pitfalls of the European Union Policy on Foreign Investment – How Will the New EU Competence on FDI Affect the
Emerging Global Regime?, (2012) 15(1) EJIL.
Jan Kleinheisterkamp, ‘Investment Protection and EU Law: The Intra-And Extra-EU Dimension of the Energy Charter Treaty’, (2012) EJIL, 85.
currently only open for signature by the states 13. A possible accession of the EU to the ICSID convention or emergence
of a new and bespoke system for settling disputes between EU investors and third states will also have a significant
impact on the customary international law for investment protection.
Importance of the Research
The proposed EU’s investment protection agreement will be an important milestone in the evolution of the customary
international investment law. Firstly, the EU’s model BIT will be a consolidation of investment treaty law contained in
over 1200 14 agreements signed by 27 European States over the past 54 years 15. The success of this initiative would
substantiate a thesis proposed by Lowenfeld 16 and elaborated on by Alvarez 17 , that the “BIT movement reached
consensus” and the substance of international law has changed with the existing investment protection agreements
becoming almost identical 18.
However, the model EU’s investment protection agreement will not only crystallise the common standards found in
international investment law practice, thus define the substance of international investment protection regime, it could
also be a catalyst for future reform.
As recognised by the European Commission the success of its investment initiative is dependent upon the EU’s model
BIT providing a level of investment protection that is higher than that found in BITs concluded by the individual EU
member states 19 . This can only be achieved through implementation of amendments that in practice increase the
protection rights of European investors and guarantee effective enforcement through state of the art investor-state dispute
Thus, the critical analysis of the future reform to the international investment protection regime, which will be the
substance of this research project, will be an invaluable contribution to the development of international investment
protection law. This research not only seeks to critically assess amendments that the European Commission has already
proposed to the existing international investment protection rules, it also aims to indentify further possible improvements
based on existing treaty and case law, thus providing valuable advice to the institutions of the EU for the advancement of
the emerging common investment policy.
The study will be mainly based on the analysis of the primary sources comprising model bilateral investment agreements
developed by the individual member states and arbitral awards involving European investors and EU member states. The
comparative analysis of existing treaty practice by the EU member states will allow identification of the highest
protection standards currently existing. This will be a starting point for indentifying minimum standards for the EU
model BIT. The analysis of the case law and the academic criticism that arbitral awards faced to date will enable
identification of amendments to the existing customary investment protection law which could be introduced by the EU’s
Finally, the analysis will include a detailed examination of the texts of the ICSID Convention, TFEU, applicable EU
Regulations and Communications and other documents relevant in the context of the EU’s accession to the ICSID
Convention. This approach will enable the discovery of all incompatibilities existing between the systems and
subsequently will allow for identifying amendments required to enable EU’s membership in the ICSID Convention.
Comparative analysis of other dispute settlement mechanisms available to the EU will enable a discovery of an
alternative solution available to the Union.
The ICSID has been named as the EU’s preferred forum for resolution of investor-state disputes. Commission, n 1, 10.
Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes Between States and Nationals of Other States, International Centre for Settlement of
Investment Disputes (ICSID), 1965, Art. 67.
The first BIT was concluded between Germany and Pakistan in 1959. M Sornarajah, The International Law on Foreign Investment, (3rd Edition,
CUP, 2010), 172.
Andreas F Lowenfeld, ‘Investment Agreements and International Law’, (2003) 123(42) Colum. J. Transnat’l L.
Jose E. Alvarez, ‘BIT on Custom’, (2009) 42(17) N.Y.U. J. Int’l L. & Pol.
Andreas F Lowenfeld, n 16, 130.
Communication, n 1, 10.
Consolidated Version of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, , OJ C 83/47.
Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes Between States and Nationals of Other States, International Centre
for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID), 1965
ICSID Additional Facility Rules, International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes, 2006.
Cane P Kritzer M H (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Empirical Research, (OUP 2010)
Dolzer R, Schreuer C, Principles of International Investment Law, (OUP 2008).
Muchlinski P, Ortino F, Schreuer C eds, The Oxford Handbook of International Investment Law, (OUP 2008)
Sornarajah M, The International Law on Foreign Investment, (3rd Edition, CUP, 2010).
Subedi S, International Investment Law. Reconciling Policy and Principle, (Oxford and Portland, Oregon, 2008).
Chapters in Books
Bungenberg M, ‘Going Global? The EU Common Commercial Policy After Lisbon in Herrmann C, Terhechthe J.P.
(eds.), European Yearbook of International Economic Law 2010, (Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010).
Zampetti A. B , Sauve P , ‘International Investment’ in Guzman T. A, and Sykes A. O, (eds.) Research Handbook in
Intentional Economic Law, (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2007)
Official Publications of the European Union
Commission, ‘Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic
and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, Towards a Comprehensive European International Investment
Policy’, (Communication), COM (2010) 343 final.
Commission, ‘Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing transitional
arrangement for bilateral investment agreements between Member States and third Countries’, COM(2010)344 final.
Commission, ‘Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and the Council establishing a framework for
managing financial responsibility linked to investor-state dispute settlement tribunals established by international
agreements to which the European Union is party’, (Communication), COM(2012) 335 final.
European Parliament, Directorate-General For External Policies of The Union, ‘The EU Approach to International
Investment Policy after Lisbon Treaty.’ (Study) INTA/EN/2010.
Official Publications International Organisations
OECD ,‘International Investment Law: Understanding Concepts and Tracking Innovations’, (2008).
UNCTAD, ‘Expropriation. UNCTAD Series on Issues in International Investment Agreements II’,
UNCTAD, ‘Fair and Equitable Treatment. UNCTAD Series on Issues in international Investment Agreements
II’, UNCTAD/DIAE/IA/2011/5 (2012).
UNCTAD, ‘Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment UNCTAD Series on Issues in International Investment
Agreements II, UNCTAD/DIA/IA/2010/1 (2010).
UNCTAD, ‘National Treatment. United Nations Series on Issues in International Investment Law’
UNCTAD/ITE/IIT/11 (Vol. IV) (1999).
UNCTAD, ‘State Contracts UNCTAD Series on Issues in International Investment Agreements’
UNCTAD, ‘World Investment Report 2012 Towards a New Generation of Investment Policies’, (2012).
Articles and working papers
Alvarez E J, ‘BIT on Custom’, (2009) 42(17) N.Y.U. J. Int’l L. & Pol.
Chaisse J, ‘Promises and Pitfalls of the European Union Policy on Foreign Investment – How Will the New EU
Competence on FDI Affect the Emerging Global Regime?, (2012) 15(1) EJIL.
Kleinheisterkamp J, ‘Investment Protection and EU Law: The Intra-And Extra-EU Dimension of the Energy Charter
Treaty’, (2012) 15(1) EJIL.
Lowenfeld F. A, ‘Investment Agreements and International Law’, (2003) 123(42) Colum. J. Transnat’l L.
Larik J and Moraru M (eds.), ‘Ever Closer in Brussels- Ever Closer in the World? EU External Action After the Lisbon
Treaty’,  EUI Working Paper LAW
Shan W, Zhang S, ‘The Treaty of Lisbon: Half Way toward a Common Investment Policy’, (2011) 21(4) EJIL.
Hoffmeister F, ‘Outsider or a Frontrunner? Recent Developments under International and European Law on the Status of
the European Union in International Organizations and Treaty Bodies, (2007) 44. CMLRev.
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mahmud Zuhdi Mohd Nor
A working title of the topic area
• This is solely for the purposes of your proposal. You will be able to
modify your title during the course of your research.
• This is the background against which your research will be carried
• It should be a brief introduction outlining the general area of study
and identifying the subject area within which your study falls.
• You should also refer to the current state of knowledge and any
recent debates on the subject.
• You need to reference this in the same way as you would do if you
were writing an essay, for example any articles or books you refer to
should be footnoted with the full details of author, title, publication
date and so on
Research Issues, aims or questions you intend
• Against the background provided in the research content above, you
need to set out the contribution that your research will make. It is
normally best to do this in the form of specific aims or research
Significance of Your Proposed Work
• This section should demonstrate how your research ‘fills a gap’ in
• Explain why your research is important – it is not enough to say that
this has not been studied previously, you need to explain why it
should be studied, that is why it is interesting/important.
• This should be the substantial section of your proposal.
• This section should explain whether your research will be library-based and/or will involve
• Give some detail on exactly how you will obtain your information.
• Most legal research is library-based, relying on information that already exists; such as journal
articles, case reports, legislation, treaties, historical records. Some studies, however, might
require the use of fieldwork or empirical data – that is, gathering information through direct
interaction with people and processes, such as interviews, questionnaires or court observation.
• Assuming you plan to rely on library-based research, you need to explain where your sources are
located and how they will be accessed, for example via the library, internet, Lexis or Westlaw. If
your research is a comparative or international study, you will need to explain how you will obtain
the relevant international materials and whether or not this will involve travel.
• If you plan to undertake fieldwork or collect empirical data, you need to provide details about
why this is an appropriate research method, who you plan to interview, how many interviews you
will carry out, and so on.
• In this section, you should also explain any special skills you have that will assist you in obtaining
information, for example, if you plan to look at French law and you can read/speak French.
You should provide a very approximate timetable for the research. For
• Week 1-3 reading theoretical material and developing theoretical
• Week 4 – completing a proposal
• Week 5-7 reading and analysing KSA materials.
• Week 8-10 reading and analysing International / Comparative materials.
• Week 11-12 writing up draft work
• Week 13-14– polishing
• Week 15 – defending project
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