HiI have lab report the due in week but before I start working on I have to complete the whole module then I have to view each document/page/quiz in sequential order. This means I must start from the top of the module and view each document to proceed to the next. Then I will have to take the pre-quiz. SO, here is all the document please read it and let me know when you do so we can do the quiz together the questions will be about what you read!Today we will go over the galvanic corrosion lab. We will talk about the introduction and why we
performed this experiment, we will go over the procedure and the simulation, and then we will end with
a discussion about your lab reports. So we’ll go ahead and start with the galvanic corrosion introduction.
So corrosion is the deterioration of a metal as a result of chemical reactions between the metal and its
surrounding environment. There are several types of corrosion and some examples are crevice, pitting,
erosion, intergranular, galvanic, and many more. So corrosion is such a big, huge topic, and important
topic in civil engineering because we are responsible for designing structures and bridges that are
constantly in contact with water. We need to be cautious and take precautions when designing because
corrosion can easily cause a failure of the structure. Today we will be getting into detail about that
galvanic type of corrosion. So if we have two metals touching, and if it’s either in a humid environment or
a roof, someplace where it’ll be exposed to water, then galvanic corrosion will occur. So, galvanic
corrosion occurs when two different metals or alloys with different nobilities come into contact with each
other, underwater, or in a damp environment. In the event of such contact, the less noble metal acts as
the anode and that will corrode. And the more noble metal acts as the cathode and that will be
protected. So there are four different conditions for galvanic corrosion to occur. We must have two
metals. One that serves as the cathode and one that serves as the anode. The cathode will receive the
electrons and its positive ions will discharge causing the negative ions to form. For the anode is the
opposite. The anode will generate electrons and the negative ions will be discharge and positive ions will
form. Basically, the cathode will take the anode’s electrons causing the anode corrode away. We must
have an electrolyte such as water or salt water for the galvanic corrosion to occur. And we must have the
metals in electrical contact or have the surface areas touching to an extent. For this experiment, we will
use a multimeter to complete the electrical contact between the metals and this is how we can measure
the current and voltage between the metal couple. If one of these conditions are not met, the galvanic
corrosion will not occur. Engineers are responsible for designing buildings, bridges, dams, and structures
all around the world. They must know what to do if they are designing structures in a certain
environment that involve water. Rain water, ocean water, any water that reacts with the metal must be
acknowledged for corrosion purposes. Especially water that contains sodium chloride. Having the
knowledge of galvanic corrosion will enable the engineer to build a structure efficiently and this will
make the structure last a lot longer. We will be able to foresee corrosion damage and use that
knowledge to prevent and control them. There are many ways to prevent the galvanic corrosion, such as
simply adding a layer of sacrificial metal to your structure. If you add a layer of metal that will corrode
away first, you can save the actual structure from corrosion for a long period of time. This extra layer
acts as a sacrifice for your structures. So the sacrificial metal must be less noble than the metal that is
protecting. Engineers will use this knowledge of galvanic corrosion to select proper materials. The metal
of a giant beam to the metal of the tiny bolt, galvanic corrosion can sneak its way through and try to
corrode the elements. This leads back to corrosion prevention. Once you select the material and the
selection is made, we can add the prevention techniques to control the corrosion rate. So the goal of this
lab is to introduce engineers to the concepts of the EMF series, the distance effect, the area effect, and
the effect of liquid conductivity. So the EMF series stands for the electromotive force series. And this is
simply a chart that predicts which metal in a metal couple will corrode and serve as the anode, and
which metal will be protected and serve as a cathode. The distance effect shows that the further away
and they anode and cathode are, lower the corrosion will be for the anode. The area effect shows that
the larger submerged cathode area is, with respect to the submerged anode area, the greater the
corrosion rate will be for the anode. For liquid conductivity, the more electrically conducting the liquid is,
the stronger the corrosion rate is and the stronger the corrosion rate is expected to be. These concepts
were just briefly summarized, but they are the core ideas of this experiment and galvanic corrosion as a
whole. Once these concepts are understood, engineers can apply this knowledge when designing their
structures. So we will now get into the procedure of the galvanic corrosion lab. Step #0, make sure all
tools, equipment, and machinery are ready to go. So just like the other labs, we must review the items
that we will be using for the galvanic corrosion lab. These are our electrodes that will be used for this lab.
We have copper at the top and zinc right beneath it. Copper will represent as the cathode and the zinc
will represent as the anode. The electrodes are attached to a tube with a wire coming out. The wire is
glued onto the surface of the electrode. You can’t really see it, but it’s glued onto the metal. You see right
here, it’s glued on. And this setup is to simply make it easier for the connection for the terminals of the
multimeter. So these wires go all the way over here or over here, and we can simply wrap these wires
around the electrodes or the terminals, when we are setting up the multimeter. This is the tub that will
be holding the electrolyte, which is simply tap water for now. Right beside it is a cylindrical beaker that
will measure the volume of water insert into the tub. This is our multi-meter. So in this lab will focus on
the difference in potential, which is the voltage and the current. So you’ll notice that the voltage will be
measured and millivolts and a current and micro amps. This is simply to get the maximum significant
figures as possible displayed on the screen. We will be using rulers for every step of the lab. The top ruler
measures in SI units and the bottom ruler measures in imperial units. This is our sodium chloride, or salt,
and a scale that will measure the amount of grams of sodium chloride later in a procedure. So this is our
lab setup when we begin the experiment. We have a bucket full of the equipment that we just mentioned
alongside the the tub of water and the cylindrical tube. The electrodes are held up by stands. These
stands can adjust to any position for the electrodes and throughout the experiment we’ll have several
different positions where we want the electrodes and these stands are able to do that. So these stands
can swivel from left to right and then you can adjust it where we can submerge the electrodes in the
water as far as we want. So we have the ability to adjust it anyway we want throughout the experiment.
This is our goal for the procedure. We must fill these tables out to include them into our lab reports and
use that for our calculations for the results. So we have our volume of water, our zinc and copper widths,
right up here and then this is the steps that we are going to be performing for this lab. This gives you a
brief summary of what each step is. So we’re going to be getting the voltage, we’re going to be getting
the current. The “D” represents the depth of the zinc, so when you submerge the electrodes into the
water, you’re going to want to record the depth of the submerged zinc and copper. And the “S” stands
for the separation. So in the experiment, you’re going to have various amounts of separation between
the electrodes and this is simply the separation between the copper and the zinc and you record that in
this column right here. Step number one, measure and record the width of the Zinc and Copper
electrodes as well as the volume of water. So for steps #1-#4, our goal is to retrieve the potential
readings for the experiment. So step number one involves filling out this small table right up here. So
we’ll measure the widths first. The copper has a width of about 2.9 cm and the zinc has a width of about
1.9 cm. We will now go ahead and use a cylindrical beaker to insert the water into the tub. I went ahead
and filled up the tub and it contains just about 4.8 L of water. So we’re gonna go over steps 2 and 3.
There can be combined in a way. Step #2 is submerge half the copper and zinc electrodes facing each
other about 50 mm apart. Measure the actual separation distance between the metals and the actual
immersion. Remember that you can have like a standard deviation of about 1 mm. This is called the
starting position hereon. Connect the positive terminal of the multimeter to the copper and the negative
terminal of the multimeter to the zinc. Measure the difference potential, which is the voltage between
the copper zinc and wait a few seconds until it stabilizes. So steps 2 and 3 involve setting up the starting
position of the table. So here’s the setup for the starting position. Again, we attached the red terminal to
the electrode, to the copper electrode, and the black terminal to the zinc electrode. And so the red
terminal is wound up all the way over here. And you can see the wire is coiled around the terminal and
it’s actually a coiled around the plate as well. So I taped the terminal to the stand for easy access and
easy mobility. The negative terminal goes all the way up, all the way over and into the tube. Just like this
one, the wire comes out of the tube but this one’s coiled around the terminal of the.. or the wire just
coiled around the terminal. So there’s complete connection for the metals. Alright, so the starting
position we’re going to have a separation distance of 5 cm, the zinc will be submerged about 6.6 cm, and
the copper will be submerged about 4.8 cm. For this setup right here, we get a reading 961 mV for the
starting position. Step #4, now vary the separation as well as the degree of the immersion. Try four
different arrangements and record the configuration of the change of voltage after each change. So we
will fill out step #4 now. This is our first arrangement. The separation is about 16.4 cm. The copper depth
is about 4.4 cm and a zinc depth is 2.9 centimeters. The voltage for this position reads 950 mV.
Arrangement #2 shows a separation of 1.8 cm. Copper death is 4.4 cm and the zinc depth is 3 cm. The
reading for this, for the copper and for the setup is about a 956 mV. Remember that these arrangements
are completely arbitrary, you can do it however you want, you just need four different arrangements.
Arrangement #3 shows a separation of 10.5 cm, copper depth of 6.4 cm, and a zinc depth of 0.8 cm. For
this, the voltage reads, 957 mV. And our last arrangement shows a separate of 21 cm, its copper depth
of 6.4 cm, and the zinc depth of 7.6 cm. And for this last arrangement, the reading of the multimeter
reads 953 mV. Step #5, return the electrodes to the starting position. Configure the multimeter to the
ammeter side of the multimeter. Measure the current flow between the zinc and copper. So for the rest
of the steps, we will be retrieving the current reading for the experiment. So we are now going to go
back to the starting position to find the current. So here’s a starting position. The multimeter will switch
to read and current. And you can see 292 right here. This stands for 292 microamps. However, we’ll go
ahead and record 0.292 mA in our table. Step #6, measure the current for the combinations “a” and “b”
of immersed depth of the Zinc and Copper shown below. Measure the accuracy, plus or minus 1 mm, and
the actual submerged depths of each electrode width. Please note that you will have to calculate the
submerged areas for both combinations. And please remember that both sides of each sample must be
considered. So for combination “a” we’re going to have the zinc about, submerged about an eighth of an
inch, or roughly 3 mm and the copper will be halfway submerged. And then for step “b” we’re going to
do the opposite. We’ll have the zinc submerged about halfway, and a copper will be submerged about an
eighth of an inch. I want to point out this one more time. You must count both sides of each electrode for
the surface area. This will be given as total submerged surface areas for the electrode. We do not have
that thickness for the electrode simply because it’s very small and it won’t show a big difference in the
current. So we’re gonna go ahead and fill out step 6 of the tables. This is arrangement “a”. As you can
see, the zinc is submerged about an eighth of an inch while the copper is submerged halfway, the
distance remains at 5 cm and for this arrangement the current reads 232 micro amps. We’ll switch now
and then a copper will be submerged an eighth of an inch while the zinc is submerged about halfway.
The current then decreases to only 65 micro amps. Notice that this decrease is is from the area effect.
The smaller the cathode with respect to the anode area, the less the current will become. Step #7, return
to the starting position and then change the distance between the electrodes so that it’s as small as
possible and as large as possible. Measure and record both current and the distance in each case. So
we’ll fill out step seven of the table now. So this is the arrangement when the separation is the smallest.
The separation is about 1.9 cm and the current reads 297 micro amps. And we’re going to switch it, we’re
going to have the arrangement when the separation is the largest. This separation shows the distance
between them about 26.75 cm, and the current decreases from 297 to 231 micro amps. This decrease in
a current is considered the distance effect. For steps 8 and 9, we’re going to return the electrodes to the
starting position and I’m going to add 4 g of salt to the bucket of water. We’re gonna stir and dissolve
the salt completely and record the current. So we’re almost finished. Here is step 9. We’re going to pour
the salt onto the measuring cup and weigh 4 g using the scale. We’ll then pour 4 g of salt into the water
and stir until the salt is completely dissolved. Remember that this arrangement is the starting position.
So after adding the four grams, we’re going to see a recording of 510 microamps. Step #10, we’re going
to add 40 grams of more salt into the bucket of water so a total 44 grams. Stir and dissolve completely
and then record the current. So we are on the last step now. We will repeat the process and weigh out 40
additional grams of salt And we’ll pour the 40 g of salt into the water again and stir until the salt is
completely dissolved. Please note that there is now 44 g total of salt in the solution. The multimeter will
be switched to the from the micro amps range to the mA range because the current exceeded the
microamps range. The current now reads 1.32 mA. This was a large increase compared to the 510
microamps of the current from the 4 g of salt. This tells us that the conductivity is a key factor galvanic
corrosion. The table is now completely filled out. This data will help you with your calculations for the
corrosion rate and the different scenarios that will be asked for in your report. Please note that this is not
your data. This was just an example of the experiment and you will not use this data for your lab report.
Can’t make that anymore clear. So this concludes the procedure. Luckily for us, everyone will get the
opportunity to perform the galvanic corrosion lab on a simulation. So performing the simulation for the
experiment as a requirement, this is also how you will receive your data. So after the video, you will have
a post-quiz and then your simulation will unlock after the quiz. Alongside the simulation, you will have
another procedure document that will help you perform the lab. This simulation procedure is very similar
to… It’s similar to the procedure that we just went over for this video. I just made it based on the
simulation rather than in “real life”. Please follow the instructions on the simulation procedure and read
the notes that are along with it. So I’ll go ahead and demonstrate the simulation. So it’s going to pop up.
And it’s going to be in your pages of your canvas. Here I simply click on a link. You’re going to wait for it
to load. You can maximize it if you want to. And we’re going to run the lab. So this is the simulation that
you will be working with for your lab report. You’ll have your copper electrode, and your zinc electrode.
You’ll have the red terminal, which represents the positive terminal, onto the cathode, which is the
copper and the black terminal that represents the negative or negative terminal on your anode, which
represents the zinc. So here’s your multimeter were able to switch from mA to V, only those two. This is
your salt cup. So we’re going to be able to add salt into the tank later and the procedure. this is your info
panel. So we have the ability to submerge the electrodes into the water. Notice that right now only one
of the electrodes is submerged, which doesn’t complete the circuit. Both models have to be in contact
with the water. So that is why there is no volts reading right now, simply because only one metal is in
there. So once we put the zinc in there, you’ll start to get a reading. And so for your info panel right here,
this is the separation that you’ll be playing with. You are able to bring the copper anywhere you like and
the tank from left to right. The maximum separation is a 102 mm all the way to 5 mm. And then you can
adjust the height and the depth of the submersion and copper depth. This is the submersion depth is 28.
It’ll go down two, and it will start at 1 mm. For the zinc, you are only able to change the depth of the zinc.
You cannot bring it left and right, so you can change the distance or the zinc. So we’ll pretty much when
we playing with the copper, with the separation. So again, we have separation we have the Zinc and
Copper depths. This is your info or your input panel. So I will be giving you each a different set of
dimensions for this simulation. You are going to be able to change the liters put in of water and the
widths of each electrode. So let’s say I give someone a volume of 5.2 L. This is how are you going to
change your volume. The minimum it will go to is 3.1 L and then it will go all the way to a maximum of
8.6 L. So let’s say I go to 5.2, I’m going to 5.2. There’s two ways you can get 5.2 either this way or it can
change a little bit And go this way. This is simply up to you, how you arrange it. But make sure you have
the 5.2 right there. You’re going to also get a dimension of the zinc width and the copper width. So, you
can see the width of the copper changes as you increase it and decrease it. The minimum is a centimeter
and a maximum and maximum is 5 cm. So let’s say I get the copper a width of about 3.3. I’ll set it to 3.3
and the zinc does the same thing. Let’s say I want to put it at 1.5. So this would be an example of data
that I’ll be giving you and you must set this input and keep it for the entire lab. So for your salt, you’re
gonna add salt into the cup. This is how you add salt in the cup, you could put as much as you want in
there. Let’s just say the first one, I think step 9 requires you to put 4 g into the cup You’re going to put 4 g
and then you’re going to simply click the beaker, and it will dumped the salt into the tank. And then the
current should change and notice that as you change the separation and the widths and the areas of the
electrodes, the current will have different readings. And you’ll understand that once you go through the
procedure. So salt has about 4 g in a tank. You can add more salt into there, so I think the next step, step
10, will be 40 g additional. So we’ll add 20, the maximum you can put out a time that is 20 g. So now
there’s 24 g of salt and now we’re going to do it again. And then there will be 44 g of salt. Please be
careful with the salt because this is irreversible. If you accidentally put 2 g instead of 4, and you press it,
it’ll record the extra 2 g and the procedure wants you to get the 4 g and the additional 40 g. And so if you
mess up, they are going to have to restart the simulation. A couple of notes here. For the multimeter,
you’ll have mA and a voltage. For.. In real life, the multimeter will fluctuate and then it’ll finally stabilize
after a given period of time. For the simulation, the voltage and amps will always fluctuate. So if I bring
all the way out, it’ll be 915, 908 916, 937, you will just analyze the fluctuation and try to get the middle
number, the average of what you see. So go ahead and play around with this when you get it, you can
see that the mA changes. And the voltage once everything is in the system. Please remember that this
will be given to you, this data will be given to you and you are not to change it at all once it’s given to
you. You must set it up and keep that for the duration of the lab. Please read this disclaimer here. This
tells you that the effects that the area, the electrode areas, separation distance, and salt concentration
of the voltage and current are exaggerated for understanding. This basically means in real life, you
probably won’t get this voltage and this current for this procedure. For the simulation purpose, this is a
little bit exaggerated so you can see the trend of what happens when you separate the distance and
separate the area or change the areas of the cathode or the anode. This is just to get you to understand
the concepts of those particular ideas. So this is pretty much the simulation. You will go ahead and
perform an experiment on the simulation. Again, you’ll have a different procedure it’s called the
simulation procedure. and this is very alike how we did the regular procedure with the key things that are
changed for simulation purposes. You’re going to exit and then exit the program. We’ll now go over the
results and what to include in your lab report. Your cover letter, you should know how to provide a
proper cover letter by now. For an introduction, simply state the objective of the lab and make sure that
this is in your own words. Test procedure, I urge you to form the procedure based on this video rather
than a procedure for this simulation. Even though they’re very similar and please make sure this is also in
your own words. For your test data, your test data was briefly mentioned already in a simulation
discussion. You’ll be given the zinc width the copper width and the tank volume. So everybody has
different combinations of the widths and you were to apply that, put it into the input panel of the
simulation and don’t change at all during the experiment. And again, fill out this table that is shown in
the procedure document for this lab and this is part of the test data. For your results section, you will
answer the questions that are stated in the galvanic corrosion procedure document. The procedure for
the simulation requires you to take a screenshot of the simulation at two different steps. So please have
these figures available for you to put into your lab report. Lastly, you will include a conclusion section.
Basically give me a paragraph or you took away from this experiment. This is the end of the galvanic
corrosion lab.

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