Please respond to each of this discussions post. I have attached two documnentsPlease respond to each of the following discussion post.
ITS – 415
Nicholas E
The chain of custody is the protocol in place where there is no period of time that the
evidence cannot be accounted for. This means that the evidence will be in a secured
location where only critical employees access the evidence and are logged doing so.
When they were there and what they were doing are common items to be kept on
record. As with any legal evidence we want to touch it as little as possible to maintain
the original setup. This is known as maintaining the integrity of the evidence (Easttom,
2016). If the evidence is collected but altered before analysis then it is null. Similarly if
you had the evidence analyzed but it got altered before trial it may be thrown out or
placed under further scrutiny.
Computer forensics are becoming integral to any organization using digital media. In
both the public and private sectors forensic analysts are used to collect and analyze
evidence for use in court cases. This could be as severe as proving cyber warfare by a
foreign government to proving cyber espionage or even suing ex-employees for
tampering before they leave. Nowadays there is a major shift to mobile evidence
collection (~95%) which adds to the burden of collection (National University, n.d.).
Moving forward even law enforcement agencies will begin building teams of computer
forensic analysts as the internet of things grows to encompass all aspects of life.
Things to avoid would include tampering with evidence, failing to secure evidence and
under documenting usage (Easttom, 2016). The whole point of spending time and
money on computer forensics is to produce usable evidence in a court of law. If you
compromise it’s integrity you have effectively flushed all that time and money down the
Easttom, C. (2016). Computer security fundamentals(3rd ed.). Indianapolis, IN:
Pearson. ISBN-13: 9780789757463
National University. (n.d.). Engineering and Computing – Ask an Expert: Why Is
Computer Forensics Important? Retrieved from:
Lauren J
Hello class,
Easttom (2016), defines the chain of custody as documentation that supports
evidence throughout the timeline of a crime. This documentation can be used in court.
In the field of forensic science the chain of custody is useful to solve cyber crimes
(Easttom, 2016). A good example would be in cyber stalking. The evidence collected,
perhaps the text messages in the suspects phone, could be evidence: apart of the chain
of custody. The way a forensic investigation should be conducted varies by government
agency. Though untampered documentation is crucial to any investigation (Easttom,
2016). A person conducting an investigation should check to see if they have the
authority to search devices. For instance, if you work as a member of the CIST of an
organization that has a Bring Your Own Device, BYOD, policy, you might not have
authority to search an employee’s personal phone. However, you could search the
employee in question’s workstation as he/she signed an agreement to follow company
policy with use of the workstation computer (Easttom, 2016). For the best practice,
Easttom (2016) recommends asking the employee to conduct a search of that
workstation computer.
Easttom, C. (2016). Computer security fundamentals (3rd ed.). Indianapolis, IN:
Pearson Education, Inc.
Charles L
Why is it important to understand the risks presented by weak physical security?
When discussing security, it is easy to get caught up and immersed in the technology
and the attacks associated with it. Take care not to forget areas such as physical
security, however. The assets the security professional is charged with protecting are
not just sitting “in a field” someplace. Each has facilities and other items surrounding it.
Hackers know this fact, so they focus not only on trying to break and subvert
technology. They also spend significant time looking for weaknesses in the facilities and
the physical assets that make structures such as the network possible. If a hacker can
gain physical access to a facility, it is more than possible for that attacker to inflict
damage to the organization by accessing assets that are not properly protected. Some
security experts say that if attackers can achieve physical access to a system, it is
under their control, and the battle is lost (Oriyano, 2014).
How does defense in depth prevent attacks?
When looking at the overall security stance of an organization, you have numerous
controls to use, each for a different reason. In the physical world, the first controls that
someone wishing to cause harm is likely to encounter are those that line the
perimeter of an organization. This perimeter is much like the moat or walls around a
castle, designed to provide both a deterrent and a formidable obstacle in the event
of an attack. When assessing an organization, pay attention to those structures and
controls that extend in and around an organization’s assets or facilities. Every control or
structure observed should provide protection either to delay or deter an attack, with the
ultimate goal of stopping unauthorized access (Oriyano, 2014).
What considerations inform decisions regarding which physical controls should be
implemented and for what reasons?
A physical access control needs to fit the situation in which it will be applied. As an
example, if the processing time of a biometric system is slow, users tend to just hold
the door open for others rather than wait for the additional processing time. Another
example is an iris scanner, which may be installed at all employee entrances, yet later
causes complaints from employees who are physically challenged or in wheelchairs
because they cannot easily use the newly installed system. Consider who will be using
the system and if it may be appropriate given the situation and user base (Oriyano,
Oriyano 2014 Hacker Techniques, Tools, and Incident Handling
Second Edition
Sean L

Why is it important to understand the risks presented by weak physical security?
Some may not think about it but having weak physical security is a very important
problem that should be addressed. If someone were to gain unauthorized access to the
perimeter they could cause all kinds of damage. If you do not take physical security into
consideration then you are making all of your security systems or networking systems
vulnerable. Aside from an unauthorized person entering the premises and making
networking systems vulnerable, they are also able to use social engineering against
your own employees to get secure information out of them without them knowing.

How does defense in depth prevent attacks?
The basic idea behind defense in depth is layering security measures, meaning you are
using multiple security mechanisms to protect the systems (Oriyano, 2014). This also is
not something that is implemented the same within the entire organization, there can be
a number of different administrative controls that layer so users don’t have too much
access. Examples of this are implicit deny, least privilege, job rotation, ect. (Oriyano,
2014). You could also have multiple network security measures stacked such as using
IDS/IPS, firewall, DMZ, or honeypots. Basically if an attacker breaks through one line of
defense there will be another in its place to make them work more for what they want.

What considerations inform decisions regarding which physical controls should be
implemented and for what reasons?
Depending on the location, budget, size, or type of information inside the building these
are some things to consider when implementing physical security. If you are a large
organization that has many trade secrets or personal information being kept within the
building then you should take as much measures as you can to prevent unwanted
persons from entering the area. If you are a smaller business then you probably don’t
need to or can not afford the larger physical security measures that could be taken.
Some examples of physical security are fences, security guards, locks, biometrics, and
many more (Oriyano, 2014).
Oriyano, S. P., & Gregg, M. C. (2014). Hacker techniques, tools, and incident
handling (2nd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Please respond to each of the following discussion post.
ITS – 460
Joe W
The current organization I work for does not have security training that we conduct
internally. This company does not see a need for an internal training strategy for its
employees. This position is a large oversight in my opinion and needs to be cleaned up
to ensure security is maintained for the company and the current customer base. The
seven-step methodology identified by Whitman & Mattord, (2017) are:
1. Identify scope, goals, and objectives
Identify Training staff
Identify Target audiences
Motivate employees & management
Administer program
Maintain program
Evaluate program
Although the company lacks a formal security strategy, I believe it would be a fairly
simple task of Identifying the scope, the goals, and the objectives of a proposed security
strategy. The company has a professional services approach so the ideal scope would
include how the company protects its data and how they protect customer data. The
goals would be to provide high-level security to company data and to provide safety
around the customer data during migration and after migration, implementing the best
practices around data protection, post-migration. The objective would be to create an
offering for the customer around security practices, but also implement similar practices
within the organization.
The most difficult part of any security program is motivating employees to
participate in and encouraging management to support these programs. It has been my
experience with larger companies that have had no real security issues, to convince
them of the benefit of implementing these types of programs. This security training in
my opinion trickles down to end-user training which no company seems to have an
Whitman, M. E., & Mattord, H. J. (2017). Management of information security. Cengage
Thomas H
This week’s discussion requires the examination of a familiar security training program.
Although I am not 100% in tune with our organizations program, I will still relate it to our
discussion topic.
The seven-step methodology outlined in our text is as follows:

Identify scope, goals, and objectives
Identify Training staff
Identify Target audiences
Motivate employees & management
Administer program
Maintain program
Evaluate program
(Whitman & Mattord, 2017)
Personally, I feel as though the tech company I contract for mirrors these steps closely. Although
I was not working there when the security program was established, I do get to experience the
constant training that has come from the evaluation phase of their program.
Identifying the training staff is typically a simple step at my current workplace. The physical
security managers handle the physical aspects while their informational security counterparts
handle their side. Target audiences are commonly the entire site but are more often pinpointed at
specific project teams and business units.
The next step, motivating staff, is one that I believe my organization does not implement or
follow. I believe that most of the employees here understand the importance of security
procedures, as many of them have security clearances and have been around awhile. With that
said, frequently scheduled security awareness and training sessions are a common practice.
Administering, maintain, and evaluating the security program is where the organization excels.
Constant feedback from admins, managers, and basic employees is a common occurrence. With
the company being a mid-sized tech organization, much of the systems and program sections
have been updated, altered, and upgraded since I have been there.
Whitman, M., & Mattord, H. (2017). Management of Information Security. Boston, Ma: Cengage
Austin M
Hello Class,
Journaling systems are critical to keeping information within a corporation/company safe
from data loss. They are mainly used when a system is in danger of losing or corrupting
data due to an outside issue such as a disaster. This can be further proven by Chen
Cheng, a researcher at A-STAR in Singapore. Chang states, ” By writing the changes of
data to a “journal” before updating the data in place, such file systems can protect and
restore data corruption due to failures. Journaling file systems are widely used within
many corporations. These can run on one or multiple operating systems such as Linux,
Macintosh and Windows. As stated in the question, NTFS, extfs2, and extfs3 are highly
regarded when looking into the journaling file systems. I would like to give a brief
explanation or each one’s advantages and disadvantages.
NTFS is a journaling file system that was created for the windows operating system.
Specifically, it was meant to run on the Windows NT version of windows although it can
be run on Windows 10 as well. The main advantage that NTFS offers is its incredible
speeds and capacity of file transfer. A hard disadvantage that this one offers is that it is
exclusively on Windows operating systems and cannot be run on Macintosh or Linux
Ext2 and Ext3 are journaling file systems that were created for the Linux operating
system. Ext2 was not able to journal files in its extended file system where ext3 was
able to. The main advantage to this system is that its speed is also incredibly fast. Ext
now has a version called ext4 which is the most powerful of the ext family.
When looking for which type of journaling system is right for a business or corporation,
good practice would be to look at what type of systems are currently in use and then
decide based on that.
– Austin Mohamedali
(2017). Optimizing File Systems with Fine-grained Metadata Journaling on Byteaddressable NVM. ACM Transactions on Storage, 13(2), 1–25.
Grace R
The purpose of journaling is to record file changes before they are written to disk,
protecting data loss if there is a power outage or disk fault. This is an obvious benefit
journaling file systems have over other types. Additionally, journal records make it easy
to parse over and recover a file system quickly and efficiently. But this does mean that
more writes are done to the disk than normal, which slows disk performance.
Journaling file systems include NTFS for Windows and Extfs3 for Linux. Extfs2 does not
use journaling but has its own advantages. Extfs2 is very portable, meaning data can be
transferred to or from different file systems well. Extfs2 & 3 are both native to linux.
They can support 4TB whereas NTFS can only support 2TB. Extfs2 & 3 also support a
superblock that records the status of the file system. Extfs3 is slightly faster and has
improved algorithms to Extfs2. Even though journaling requires more writing to the disk,
journaling has optimized the head motion on the disk drive. But its main advantage is
that it has journaling.
NTFS is advantageous because it is more security focused. It allows for data encryption
and special permissions. But it is far less portable. From different operating systems,
third party software must be installed to write to NTFS. It is also not necessarily faster or
more performant like Extfs2 & 3.
Nelson, B., Phillips, E., & Steuart, C. (2016). Guide to computer forensics and
investigations: Processing digital evidence (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
What is NTFS? (n.d) Retrieved from
The Third Extended File System (n.d) Retrieved from
Ext2fs Definition (n.d)

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