Question(s):Your textbook presents a figure (1.2) showing where I/O psychologists are employed in the U.S. Discuss which of these locations you would find most, and least, interesting and why?Please respond to each other. Remember, that the purpose of this discussion is not only to answer my initial or follow-up questions, but also to engage with the assigned readings and integrate them with other ideas and into your daily (or future) practice. Please do use terminology from the assigned readings, cite the textbook with at least an in-text citation (Dipboye, 2016), and bring in current events (provide a URL) to add to the conversation and to support your points. These discussions are one of the main learning and assessment tool in this course, so respond accordingly!!!!!!!!THIS IS FOR POST AND REPLYModule 1 Lecture Notes
Lecture Notes Suggested Readings Key Terms
Lecture Notes
Adapted from Bauer, T., & Erdogan, B. (2012). An Introduction to Organizational Behavior.
Available from
People can make work an exciting, fun, and productive place to be, or they can make it a routine, boring,
and ineffective place where everyone dreads to go. Steve Jobs, co-founder, chairman, and CEO of Apple
Inc. attributes the innovations at Apple, which include the iPod, MacBook, and iPhone, to people,
noting, “Innovation has nothing to do with how many R&D dollars you have…It’s not about money. It’s
about the people you have, how you’re led, and how much you get it.” (Kirkpatrick, D. 1998).
Mary Kay Ash, founder of Mary Kay Inc., a billion-dollar cosmetics company, makes a similar point,
saying, “People are definitely a company’s greatest asset. It doesn’t make any difference whether the
product is cars or cosmetics. A company is only as good as the people it keeps.” (Retrieved June 4, 2008,
Just like people, organizations come in many shapes and sizes. We understand that the career path you
will take may include a variety of different organizations. In addition, we know that each student taking
this course has a unique set of personal and work-related experiences, capabilities, and career goals. On
average, a person working in the United States will change jobs 10 times in 20 years (U.S. Bureau of
Labor Statistics. 2005. Retrieved December 8, 2005, from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Web site: In order to succeed in this type of career situation,
individuals need to be armed with the tools necessary to be lifelong learners. So, this course will not be
about giving you all the answers to every situation you may encounter when you start your first job or as
you continue up the career ladder. Instead, this course will give you the vocabulary, framework, and
critical thinking skills necessary for you to diagnose situations, ask tough questions, evaluate the
answers you receive, and act in an effective and ethical manner regardless of situational characteristics.
OB draws from other disciplines to create a unique field. As you explore this course, you will most likely
recognize OB’s roots in other disciplines. For example, when we review topics such as motivation, we
will again review studies from the field of psychology. The topic of team processes relies heavily on the
field of sociology. In the chapter relating to decision making, you will come across the influence of
economics. When we study power and influence in organizations, we borrow heavily from political
sciences. Even medical science contributes to the field of organizational behavior, particularly to the
study of stress and its effects on individuals. spans topics related from the individual
to the organization.
Those who study organizational behavior—which now includes you—are interested in several outcomes
such as work attitudes (e.g., job satisfaction and organizational commitment) as well as job performance
(e.g., customer service and counterproductive work behaviors). A distinction is made in OB regarding
which level of the organization is being studied at any given time. There are three key levels of analysis
in OB. They are examining the individual, the group, and the organization. For example, if I want to
understand my boss’s personality, I would be examining the individual level of analysis. If we want to
know about how my manager’s personality affects my team, I am examining things at the team level.
But, if I want to understand how my organization’s culture affects my boss’s behavior, I would be
interested in the organizational level of analysis.
Why Organizational Behavior Matters
OB matters at three critical levels. It matters because it is all about things you care about. OB can help
you become a more engaged organizational member. Getting along with others, getting a great job,
lowering your stress level, making more effective decisions, and working effectively within a
team…these are all great things, and OB addresses them!
It matters because employers care about OB. A recent survey by the National Association of Colleges
and Employers (NACE) asked employers which skills are the most important for them when evaluating
job candidates, and OB topics topped the list (NACE 2007 Job Outlook Survey. Retrieved July 26, 2008,
from the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) Web site:
The following were the top five personal qualities/skills:
Communication skills (verbal and written)
Interpersonal skills (relates well to others)
Strong work ethic
These are all things we will cover in OB.
Finally, it matters because organizations care about OB. The best companies in the world understand
that people make the place. How do we know this? Well, we know that organizations that value their
employees are more profitable than those that do not (Huselid, M. A., 1995, The impact of human
resource management practices on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performance.
Academy of Management Journal, 38, 635-672; Pfeffer, J.,1998, The human equation: Building profits by
putting people first. Boston: Harvard Business School Press; Pfeffer, J., & Veiga, J. F.,1999, Putting
people first for organizational success. Academy of Management Executive, 13, 37–48; Welbourne, T., &
Andrews, A., 1996, Predicting performance of Initial Public Offering firms: Should HRM be in the
equation? Academy of Management Journal, 39, 910–911).
Suggested Readings
Aycan, Z. (2000). Cross-cultural industrial and organizational psychology: Contributions, past
developments, and future directions. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 31 (1), 110-128.
Drenth, P. J., & Ming, W. Z. (2000). Work and organizational psychology. In K. Pawlik & M. R. Rosenzweig
(Eds.), International handbook of psychology (pp. 479-496). London: Sage.
Dunnette, M. D. (1998). Emerging Trends and vexing issues in industrial and organizational psychology.
Applied Psychology: An International Review, 47(2), 129-153.
Howard, A., & Lowman, R. L. (1985). Should industrial/organizational psychologists be licensed?
American Psychologist, 40, 40-47.
Kline, T. J. (1996). Defining the field of industrial-organizational psychology. Canadian Psychology, 37,
Knoppes, L. L. (1997). American female pioneers of industrial and organizational psychology during the
early years. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 500-515.
Kuther, T. L. (2005). Your career in psychology: I/O Psychology. Wadsworth.
Landy, F. J. (1997). Early Influences on the development of industrial and organizational psychology.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 467-477.
Latham, G. P. (2001). The interdependence of the science and practice of industrial-organizational
psychology: A rejoinder. Applied Psychology: an International Review, 50 (2), 245-251.
Latham, G. P. & Sue-Chan, C. (1998). Selecting employees for the 21 st century: Predicting the
contribution of I-O psychology to Canada. Canadian Psychology, 39, 14-22.
Rynes, S. L., & McNatt, D. B. (2001). Bringing the organization into organizational research: An
examination of academic research inside organizations. Journal of Business & Psychology, 16 (1), 3-19.
Shimmin, S. & Pieter, J. (1998). History of the psychology of work and organization. In P. Drenth, & H.
Thierry (Eds.), The Handbook of Work and Organizational Psychology, Vol 1: Introduction to Work and
Organizational Psychology (2nd ed., pp. 71-79). England: Psychology Press/Erlbaum (UK) Taylor &
Stagner, R. (1981). Training and experiences of some distinguished industrial psychologists. American
Psychologist, 36, 497-505.
Sternberg, R. J. ( 1997). Career paths in psychology: Where your degree can take you. Washington, DC:
American Psychological Association.
Van De Water, T. J. (1997). Psychology’s entrepreneurs and the marketing of industrial and
organizational psychology. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 486-499.
Key Terms
Industrial psychology
Organizational psychology
I/O psychology
Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Research vs. Practice
Outlook for I/O careers
MA vs. PhD

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