Writing a Lit Review over my topic for my Research Methods class. My Hypothesis is “People who are in college have higher stress levels than young adults who are not in college”. Lit review should be four pages minimum. !4 references minimum, APA formatting. The attachments provided have minor differences then what is here but make sure it is 4 pages and 14 references. I provided a short example paper and a pdf of the references I have already found. Feel free to change or get rid of any reference provided. I also provided my methods and procedures portion of my paper so you can have an idea of what my study is.Literature Review Grading Rubric
Weighted at 20% of the overall lab grade (Scoring – 20 points)
Your paper will be graded based on the following:
1. Title page (1.5 pt)
a. Follow APA formatting
b. Title, header, page numbers, your name
2. Literature review (9 pts)
a. 2 pages minimum
b. Follow APA formatting
c. Use of subheadings when appropriate
d. Clear statement of hypothesis at the end
3. References (3 pts)
a. Minimum 6-8 peer-reviewed articles
i. Aim for current research
b. All references in APA format
c. At least 3 articles from the last decade (2010+)
4. Writing quality (3 pts)
a. APA format
b. Grammar, syntax, sentence structure
c. Expression of ideas
d. Integrate, compare, contrast, and analyze research
i. Minimum summarizing of articles
5. APA Formatting (3.5 pts)
Useful guides for writing a literature review:
Keep in mind:
● Think about your audience: Avoid technical jargon and define any key terms you use
that a typical college student would not understand.
○ For example: “The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is an area of the frontal lobe of the
brain that plays a role in executive functioning and personality”
● Write like you are explaining this research/your ideas to someone who has never heard
● Explain key terms early on and be clear/concise
● Never use the word “prove” for anything you write
● Avoid first person, formal writing is written in 3rd person voice
● State facts, not opinions. Lead reader logically, not emotionally
● Avoid contractions (i.e., “cannot” instead of “can’t” or “do not” instead of “don’t”)
Checklist – Literature Review Paper
Use the check sheet below to make sure your paper is the best it can be! Make sure you answer
“Yes” to all questions before submitting your paper or you will lose points! Please note that the
7th Edition of the American Psychological Association Publication Manual has some flexibility
in terms of language, font, spacing, and other items, but that papers in this course MUST adhere
to the guidelines listed below. We use the “Professional” paper format as well (not the student
General Paper Format
1. Is everything in your paper (including headers, the main body of your study
one literature review, and references) in 12 point Times New Roman font?
2. Is everything in your paper double spaced, including references (here I mean
the spacing above and below each line, not the spaces following a period)?
3. Do you have one inch margins on all sides of the paper (one inch from the top
of the page, one inch from the bottom, and one inch from each side)
4. Are the first lines of all paragraphs indented roughly ½ inch?
5. Are your paragraphs aligned left? (That is, text should be flush left, with lines
lining up on the left of the page, but text should NOT line up on the right side
of the page – it should look ragged)
6. Do you need help figuring out how to configure a word document in APA
format (inserting headers, page numbers, indents, etc.) using the professional
(not student) formatting guidelines? If YES or NO, I recommend watching
this video which walks you through setting up an APA formatted paper!
1. Is your header title in ALL CAPS, and is it a shorter version of your real title?
2. Is your Running head in 12 point Times New Roman font?
3. Do you have a page number that is flush right (also in 12 point Times New
4. Is your header title 50 characters or less (including spaces and punctuation)?
Title / Name / Institution
1. Is your title focused and short, avoiding unnecessary words and abbreviations
that serve no purpose (as recommended by the APA)?
2. Does your title describe your general paper theme (while avoiding something
bland like “Paper One: Literature Review”)? Note that your header should be
a shorter version or your title (For example, the first few words are fine)
3. Do all title words with three letters or more start with a capital letter?
4. Is your title in bold?
5. If your title is longer than one line, is it double-spaced (like everything else in
6. Are your name and institution correct?
7. Are your title, name, and institution elements centered and in 12 point Times
New Roman font?
1. Is your header title present and identical to your header from the title page?
2. Is your header title in ALL CAPS and 12 point Times New Roman font?
3. Do you have a page number starting on page 2
Title for the literature review
1. Do you have the identical title you used on the title page rewritten at the top
of your literature review (including being in bold)?
2. Is this title centered?
Main body of the literature review
1. Does your literature review start broadly, giving a brief overview of the paper
2. Does your literature review start to narrow down toward your hypotheses?
3. Do your paragraphs transition from one to the next? (That is, avoid simply
listing studies you read. Tie them together. How does Study A in paragraph A
relate to Study B in paragraph B?)
4. Does your paper end in your very specific hypotheses? (You will lose a lot of
points if your paper doesn’t provide the specific predictions!)
5. Did you make sure your predictions are written in the past tense?
6. Is your paper at least two pages long (not including the hypotheses)?
Citations for the literature review
1. Did you cite a minimum of 6 citations? (Note that you can give a lot of detail
for some articles you cite but only a sentence or two for others. How much
detail you go into depends on how important the article is in helping your
support your hypotheses)
2. Are your citations in APA format (That is, ONLY the last name of the
author(s) and date of publication)?
a. Note that you do NOT include first names, initials, or the title of the article
the authors wrote when citing. That information belongs in the references
b. Also note that you only use an ampersand – the & symbol – when it occurs
within parentheses. In other instances, use the word “and”
3. If you quoted, did you provide a page number for the direct quote?
4. If you paraphrased in any way, did you cite the source of that information?
5. Did you cite everything that sounded like it was factual information?
6. Did you make sure the period follows the citation rather than coming before it?
7. If there are two authors, did you cite both of them? If in parentheses, did you
use the & symbol? If outside of parentheses, did you use the word “and”?
8. If there are three or more authors in the same citation, did you use the phrase et
al. every time you cited them?
Title for the references page
1. Do references start on their own page?
2. Is the word “References” centered? Is it in bold?
References – Make sure these are in APA format!
1. Are references listed in alphabetical order (starting with the last name of the
first author listed)?
2. Are all citations from the literature review referenced?
3. Is the first line of the reference flush left while subsequent lines are indented
(Note: Use the ruler function for this. DO NOT simply tab)?
4. Did you use the “&” symbol when listing more than one author name?
5. Did you include the date of publication
6. For article references, is the article title (which is not italicized) present, with
only the first word and proper names starting with a capital letter?
7. For article references, is the name of the journal present with all major words
starting with a capital letter (Note: this journal title is italicized)?
8. For article references, is the volume number italicized
9. For article references, are the page numbers present (not italicized)
10. For article references, is the DOI present
1. Did you proofread your paper, go to the writing center, go to the research
methods help center, or use the Pearson writer to make sure your paper flows
2. Did you use the past tense (which is recommended, since your papers in this
class will reflect work you already did rather than work you will do)?
3. Did you use a scientific / objective terms like “people”, “participants”. “users”,
“readers”, etc. (as opposed to subjective words like “you”, “we”, “me”, “I”, or
“us”, etc.)? Note that you can use the word “I” when referring to your own work.
Aselton, P. (2012). Sources of stress and coping in American college students who have been
diagnosed with depression. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 25(3),
Beiter, R., Nash, R., McCrady, M., Rhoades, D., Linscomb, M., Clarahan, M., & Sammut, S.
(2015). The prevalence and correlates of depression, anxiety, and stress in a sample of
college students. Journal of Affective Disorders, 173, 90-96. http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy
Boardman, J. D., & Alexander, K. B. (2011). Stress trajectories, health behaviors, and the mental
health of black and white young adults. Social Science & Medicine, 72(10), 1659-1666.
Brown, D. R. (1967). Student Stress and the Institutional Environment. Journal of Social Issues,
23(3), 92–107. https://doi-org.ezproxy.fiu.edu/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1967.tb00588.x
Chen, W., & Chen, J. (2019). Consequences of inadequate sleep during the college years: Sleep
deprivation, grade point average, and college graduation. Preventive Medicine: An
International Journal Devoted to Practice and Theory, 124, 23-28. http://dx.doi.org.
Crack, L. E., & Doyle-Baker, P. (2020). Stress levels in university/college female students at the
start of the academic year. Journal of American College Health, http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy
Joo, S., Durband, D. B., & Grable, J. (2008). The academic impact of financial stress on college
students. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory and Practice, 10(3),
Pitt, A., Oprescu, F., Tapia, G., & Gray, M. (2018). An exploratory study of students’ weekly
stress levels and sources of stress during the semester. Active Learning in Higher
Education, 19(1), 61-75. http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.fiu.edu/10.1177/1469787417731194
Robb, C. A. (2017). College student financial stress: Are the kids alright? Journal of Family and
Economic Issues, 38( 4), 514-527. http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.fiu.edu/10.1007/s10834
Schlink, B. R., Peterson, S. M., Hairston, W. D., König, P., Kerick, S. E., & Ferris, D. P. (2017).
Independent component analysis and source localization on mobile EEG data can identify
increased levels of acute stress. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 11, 13. http://dx.doi.
Thurber, C. A., & Walton, E. A. (2012). Homesickness and adjustment in university students.
Journal of American College Health, 60(5), 415-419. http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.fiu.edu
One-hundred and sixteen participants were randomly selected to participate in this study. The
participants were made up of college students from Florida International University and young
adults not in college from the surrounding area, Sweetwater, FL. Of these 116 participants,
50.0% (N= 58) were college students and 50.0% (N=58) were not college students. Of the 58
college students, 50.0% (N=29) were men and 50.0% (N=29) were women. The same amount of
men and women were selected for the young adults not in college.Ages ranged from a minimum
of 18 to a maximum of 23, with an average age of M=20.4 (SD=3.2). Our sample population
consisted of 69% Hispanic Americans (N=80), 19.8%, African Americans (N=23), 7.8%
Caucasions (N=9), and 3.4% Others (N=4).
Demographic Questionnaire. The questionnaire administered to participants was
created by the research team in order to fulfill the purpose of the current study. It provided a
deep analysis in regard to the demographic variables of the participants. It inquires about age,
gender, stress levels, and other matters relevant to the study.
Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ). Participants were provided with a version of the
PSQ in order to assess their stress levels. It consists of 30 self-reported questions which are
aimed to identify stress levels. Responses are provided by a scale that ranges from 1-4; 1 being
“almost”, 2 “sometimes”, 3 “often”, and 4 “usually”. Each statement must be answered by the
participants according to their experiences within the last two months. The raw scale score can
range from 30-90.
Electroencephalogram (EEG). This instrument was used to investigate the
physiological basis of cognition under real-world conditions. Stress is supposed to have an
influence on one’s cortical activity (Schlink, et al., 2017). Participants were asked to use a
mobile EEG in order to assess their stress levels while completing multiple tasks.
Other Measures. Participants were asked to complete a timed obstacle course while
answering trivia questions. Microphones and headsets were used to communicate the questions
and answers between the participants and the research team.
Design and Procedure
This experiment used a within subject design to examine the stress levels of college
students and young adults who do not attend college. The experiment was conducted in three
different phases. In the first phase, researchers went and looked for various people to participate
in this study. For the college student participants, the research team set up a table in the student
union at Florida International University. For the young adults who are not in college, the
research team set up a table in Dolphin Mall. The participants filled out the demographic
questionnaire for qualifying purposes and the consent form at the table. After the research team
went through and picked who qualified, the participants were sent an email. In this email, they
were sent a link to sign up for time slots, as well as a consent form. The participants were asked
to print the consent form, fill it out and bring it to the study on the day and time selected. Once
all the participants were chosen they moved on to the next phase, the actual experiment. All
participants, college students and non-college students, performed the same tasks.
In the first part of the study, the participants were given The Perceived Stress
Questionnaire (PSQ) in order to see where the participants rated their own stress levels.
Participants were instructed to follow the directions at the top of the page. As soon as they read
the instructions, they were reminded to finish the questionnaire as quickly and honestly as
possible, according to their stress levels the past month. Once the participants finished the
questionnaire, they moved on to the next part.
The second part of the study included the participants completing an obstacle course. The
obstacle course was moderate in difficulty. It included running around cones in a zigzag motion,
running through tires, jumping over one-foot tall obstacles, and army crawling under ropes.
During the obstacle course, participants were asked simple trivia questions through a bluetooth
headset. They would answer the questions through the headset in order for the research team to
record their answers. The participants were timed to see how long it would take them to finish
the obstacle course and answer the trivia questions simultaneously. They were timed in order to
add some extra pressure and stress. In order for the research team to measure the level of stress,
participants wore a mobile Electroencephalogram (EEG). The EEG was used to measure their
cortical activity during the obstacle course.
After the experiment, the researchers took the scores from the PSQ and their EEG
activity to determine their level of stress. The researchers used the obstacle course as the
independent variable and the cortical activity as the dependent variable. It should be noted that
there are multiple dependent variables, the primary focus, corresponding to the hypothesis, are 1)
the participants’ stress level and 2) participants’ cortical activity.
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