Your CLA2 will measure your understanding on global market opportunities, multiculturalresearch, quantitative and qualitative research and the Internet as a tool in the research task.Please develop a 4-6-page APA-formatted paper.Read comprehensive case 4-6 Making Socially Responsible and Ethical Marketing Decisions:Selling Tobacco to Third World Countries,then address the following questions(…Responsible_and_Ethical_Marketing_Decisions.pdf).Document your citations throughout the text of your 6-8-page, APA-formatted report;CASE STUDY AND ESSAY TEMPLATE BELOWCASE 4-6 Making Socially Responsible and Ethical
Marketing Decisions: Selling Tobacco to
Third World Countries
Strategic decisions move a company toward its stated goals and
perceived success. Strategic decisions also reflect the firm’s social
responsibility and the ethical values on which such decisions are
made. They reflect what is considered important and what a company wants to achieve.
Mark Pastin, writing on the function of ethics in business decisions, observes:
There are fundamental principles, or ground rules, by which
organizations act. Like the ground rules of individuals, organizational ground rules determine which actions are possible
for the organization and what the actions mean. Buried beneath the charts of organizational responsibility, the arcane
strategies, the crunched numbers, and the political intrigue
of every firm are sound rules by which the game unfolds.
The following situations reflect different decisions made by
multinational firms and governments and also reflect the social responsibility and ethical values underpinning the decisions. Study
the following situations in the global cigarette marketplace carefully and assess the ground rules that guided the decisions of firms
and governments.
expanding market. As an example, Indonesia’s per capita cigarette consumption quadrupled in less than ten years. Increasingly,
cigarette advertising on radio and television is being restricted in
some countries, but other means of promotion, especially to young
people, are not controlled.
China, with more than 300 million smokers, produces and consumes about 1.4 trillion cigarettes per year, more than any other
country in the world. Estimates are that China has more smokers
than the United States has people. Just 1 percent of that 1.4 trillion cigarette market would increase a tobacco company’s overseas
sales by 15 percent and would be worth as much as $300 million in
added revenue.
American cigarette companies have received a warm welcome
in Russia, where at least 50 percent of the people smoke. Consumers are hungry for most things Western, and tobacco taxes are low.
Unlike in the United States and other countries that limit or ban
cigarette advertising, there are few effective controls on tobacco
products in Russia. Russia, the world’s fourth largest cigarette market, has proved to be an extremely profitable territory for British
American Tobacco (BAT). BAT Russia, established in 1949, sold
65 billion cigarettes in Russia in 2005, giving it almost one-fifth of
market share.
In the United States, 600 billion cigarettes are sold annually, but
sales are shrinking rapidly. Unit sales have been dropping about
1 to 2 percent a year, and sales have been down by almost 5 percent in the last six years. The U.S. Surgeon General’s campaign
against smoking, higher cigarette taxes, non-smoking rules in
public areas, and the concern Americans have about general
health have led to the decline in tobacco consumption. Faced
with various class-action lawsuits, the success of states in winning lawsuits, and pending federal legislation, tobacco companies have stepped up their international marketing activities to
maintain profits.
Even though companies have agreed to sweeping restrictions in
the United States on cigarette marketing and secondhand smoke
and to bolder cancer-warning labels, they are fighting as hard as
ever in the Third World to convince the media, the public, and
policymakers that similar changes are not needed. In seminars at
luxury resorts worldwide, tobacco companies invite journalists, all
expenses paid, to participate in programs that play down the health
risks of smoking. It is hard to gauge the influence of such seminars, but in the Philippines, a government plan to reduce smoking
by children was “neutralized” by a public relations campaign from
cigarette companies to remove “cancer awareness and prevention”
as a “key concern.” A slant in favor of the tobacco industry’s point
of view seemed to prevail.
At a time when most industrialized countries are discouraging smoking, the tobacco industry is avidly courting consumers
throughout the developing world using catchy slogans, obvious
image campaigns, and single-cigarette sales that fit a hard-pressed
customer’s budget. The reason is clear: The Third World is an
In Gambia, smokers send in cigarette box tops to qualify for a
chance to win a new car. In Argentina, smoking commercials fill
20 percent of television advertising time. And in crowded African
cities, billboards that link smoking to the good life tower above the
sweltering shantytowns. Such things as baby clothes with cigarette
logos, health warnings printed in foreign languages, and tobaccosponsored contests for children are often featured in tobacco ads in
Third World countries. Latin American tobacco consumption rose
by more than 24 percent over a ten-year period.
Critics claim that sophisticated promotions in unsophisticated societies entice people who cannot afford the necessities of life to spend money on a luxury—and a dangerous one
at that. The sophistication theme runs throughout the smoking
ads. In Kinshasa, Zaire, billboards depict a man in a business
suit stepping out of a black Mercedes as a chauffeur holds the
door. In Nigeria, promotions for Graduate brand cigarettes show
a university student in his cap and gown. Those for Gold Leaf
cigarettes have a barrister in a white wig and the slogan, “A very
important cigarette for very important people.” In Kenya, a magazine ad for Embassy cigarettes shows an elegant executive officer with three young men and women equivalent to American
yuppies. The most disturbing trend in developing countries is
advertising that associates tobacco with American affluence and
culture. Some women in Africa, in their struggle for women’s
rights, defiantly smoke cigarettes as a symbol of freedom. Billboards all over Russia feature pictures of skyscrapers and white
sandy beaches and slogans like “Total Freedom” or “Rendezvous
with America.” They aren’t advertising foreign travel but American cigarette brands.
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Cases 4 Developing Global Marketing Strategies
Every cigarette manufacturer is in the image business, and tobacco companies say their promotional slant is both reasonable
and common. They point out that in the Third World a lot of people cannot understand what is written in the ads anyway, so the ads
zero in on the more understandable visual image. “In most of the
world, the Marlboro Man isn’t just a symbol of the Wild West; he’s
a symbol of the West.” “You can’t convince people that all Americans don’t smoke.” In Africa, some of the most effective advertising includes images of affluent white Americans with recognizable
landmarks, such as the New York City skyline, in the background.
In much of Africa, children as young as five are used to sell single
cigarettes, affordable to other children, to support their own nicotine habits. Worldwide nearly one-fourth of all teenage smokers
smoked their first cigarette before they were 10 years old.
The scope of promotional activity is enormous. In Kenya, a
major tobacco company is the fourth-largest advertiser. Tobaccosponsored lotteries bolster sales in some countries by offering as
prizes expensive goods that are beyond most people’s budgets.
Gambia has a population of just 640,000, but a tobacco company
lottery attracted 1.5 million entries (each sent in on a cigarette box
top) when it raffled off a Renault car.
Evidence is strong that the strategy of tobacco companies is to
target young people as a means of expanding market demand. Report after report reveals that adolescents receive cigarettes free as
a means of promoting the product. For example, in Buenos Aires,
a Jeep decorated with the yellow Camel logo pulls up in front of a
high school. The driver, a blond woman wearing khaki safari gear,
begins handing out free cigarettes to 15- and 16-year-olds on lunch
recess. Teens visiting MTV’s websites in China, Germany, India,
Poland, and Latin America were given the chance to click on a banner ad that led them to a questionnaire about their exposure to
cigarette ads and other marketing tools in their countries. Some
10,000 teens responded to the banner ads. “In the past week, more
than 62 percent of teenagers in these countries have been exposed
to tobacco advertising in some form,” the 17-year-old SWAT (Students Working against Tobacco) chairman told Reuters. “The tobacco companies learned that marketing to teens and kids worked
in this country, but since they can’t do it here anymore, they’ve
taken what they learned to other countries.” At a video arcade in
Taipei, free American cigarettes are strewn atop each game. “As
long as they’re here, I may as well try one,” says a high school girl.
In Malaysia, Gila-Gila, a comic book popular with elementary
school students, carries a Lucky Strike ad. Attractive women in
cowboy outfits regularly meet teenagers going to rock concerts or
discos in Budapest and hand them Marlboros. Those who accept a
light on the spot also receive Marlboro sunglasses.
According to the American Lung Association Tobacco Policy
Trend Alert, the tobacco industry is offering candy-flavored cigarettes in an attempt to continue to target teens.1 Advertising and
promotion of these products uses hip-hop imagery, attractive
women, and other imagery to appeal to youth in similar ways that
Joe Camel did a decade ago. Marketing efforts for candy-flavored
cigarettes came after the Master Settlement Agreement prohibited
tobacco companies from using cartoon characters to sell cigarettes.
Researchers recently released the results of several surveys that
showed that 20 percent of smokers ages 17 to 19 smoked flavored
cigarettes, while only 6 percent of smokers ages 17 to 20 did.
See “From Joe Camel to Kauai Kolada—The Marketing of Candy-Flavored
cat29974_case4_01-024.indd 17
In Russia, a U.S. cigarette company sponsors disco parties where
thousands of young people dance to booming music. Admission is
the purchase of one pack of cigarettes. At other cigarette-sponsored
parties, attractive women give cigarettes away free.
In many countries, foreign cigarettes have a status image that
also encourages smoking. A 26-year-old Chinese man says he
switched from a domestic brand to Marlboro because “You feel a
higher social position” when you smoke foreign cigarettes. “Smoking is a sign of luxury in the Czech Republic as well as in Russia
and other Eastern countries,” says an executive of a Czech tobacco
firm that has a joint venture with a U.S. company. “If I can smoke
Marlboro, then I’m a well-to-do man.”
The global tobacco companies insist that they are not attempting to recruit new smokers. They say they are only trying to encourage smokers to switch to foreign brands. “The same number of
cigarettes are consumed whether American cigarettes or not,” was
the comment of one executive.
Although cigarette companies deny they sell higher tar and nicotine cigarettes in the Third World, one British tobacco company
does concede that some of its brands sold in developing countries
contain more tar and nicotine than those sold in the United States
and Europe. A recent study found three major U.S. brands with
filters had 17 milligrams of tar in the United States, 22.3 in Kenya,
29.7 in Malaysia, and 31.1 in South Africa. Another brand with
filters had 19.1 milligrams of tar in the United States, 28.8 in South
Africa, and 30.9 in the Philippines. The firm says that Third World
smokers are used to smoking their own locally made product,
which might have several times more tar and nicotine. Thus, the
firm leaves the tar- and nicotine-level decisions to its foreign subsidiaries, who tailor their products to local tastes.
C. Everett Koop, the retired U.S. Surgeon General, was quoted in
a recent news conference as saying, “Companies’ claims that science
cannot say with certainty that tobacco causes cancer were flat-footed
lies” and that “sending cigarettes to the Third World was the export
of death, disease, and disability.” An Oxford University epidemiologist has estimated that, because of increasing tobacco consumption
in Asia, the annual worldwide death toll from tobacco-related illnesses will more than triple over the next two decades.
Perhaps 100 million people died prematurely during the 20th century as a result of tobacco, making it the leading preventable cause
of death and one of the top killers overall. According to the World
Health Organization, each year smoking causes 4 million deaths
globally, and it expects the annual toll to rise to 10 million in 2030.
Third World governments often stand to profit from tobacco sales.
Brazil collects 75 percent of the retail price of cigarettes in taxes,
some $100 million a month. The Bulgarian state-owned tobacco
company, Bulgartabac, contributes almost $30 million in taxes to
the government annually. Bulgartabac is a major exporter of cigarettes to Russia, exporting 40,000 tons of cigarettes annually.
Tobacco is Zimbabwe’s largest cash crop. One news report from
a Zimbabwe newspaper reveals strong support for cigarette companies. “Western anti-tobacco lobbies demonstrate unbelievable
hypocrisy,” notes one editorial. “It is relatively easy to sit in Washington or London and prattle on about the so-called evils of smoking, but they are far removed from the day-to-day grind of earning
a living in the Third World.” It goes on to comment that it doesn’t
dispute the fact that smoking is addictive or that it may cause diseases, but “smoking does not necessarily lead to certain death. Nor
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Part 6
Supplementary Material
is it any more dangerous than other habits.” Unfortunately, tobacco
smoking has attracted the attention of a particularly “sanctimonious, meddling sector of society. They would do better to keep
their opinions to themselves.”
Generally, smoking is not a big concern of governments beset
by debt, internal conflict, drought, or famine. It is truly tragic,
but the worse famine becomes, the more people smoke—just as
with war, when people who are worried want to smoke. “In any
case,” says one representative of an international tobacco company,
“People in developing countries don’t have a long enough life expectancy to worry about smoking-related problems. You can’t turn
to a guy who is going to die at age 40 and tell him that he might not
live up to 2 years extra at age 70.” As for promoting cigarettes in the
Third World, “If there is no ban on TV advertising, then you aren’t
going to be an idiot and impose restrictions on yourself,” says the
representative, “and likewise, if you get an order and you know that
they’ve got money, no one is going to turn down the business.”
Cigarette companies figure China’s self-interest will preserve its
industry. Tobacco provides huge revenues for Beijing because all tobacco must be sold through the China National Tobacco Company
monopoly. Duty on imported cigarettes is nearly 450 percent of their
value. Consequently, tobacco is among the central government’s biggest source of funding, accounting for more than $30 billion in income in 2005. China is also a major exporter of tobacco.
Lawsuits, stringent legislation against advertising, laws restricting
where people can smoke, and other antismoking efforts on the part
of governments have caused tobacco companies to intensify their
efforts in those markets where restrictions are fewer and governments more friendly. As part of a strategy to increase its sales in the
developing world, Philip Morris International (PMI) was spun off
from Philip Morris USA in 2008 to escape the threat of litigation
and government regulation in the United States. The move frees
the tobacco giant’s international operations of the legal and publicrelations headaches in the United States that have hindered its
growth. Its practices are no longer constrained by American public
opinion, paving the way for broad product experimentation.
A new product, Marlboro Intense, is likely to be part of an aggressive blitz of new smoking products PMI will roll out around
the globe. The Marlboro Intense cigarette has been shrunk down
by about a half inch and offers smokers seven potent puffs apiece,
versus the average of eight or so milder draws. The idea behind
Intense is to appeal to customers who, due to indoor smoking bans,
want to dash outside for a quick nicotine hit but don’t always finish
a full-size cigarette. The CEO of PMI says there are “possibly 50
markets that are interested in deploying Marlboro Intense.”
Other product innovations include sweet-smelling cigarettes
that contain tobacco, cloves and flavoring—with twice the tar and
nicotine levels of a conventional U.S. cigarette. Marlboro Mix 9,
a high-nicotine, high-tar cigarette launched in Indonesia in 2007,
and a clove-infused Mix 9 will be exported to other southeast Asian
markets next. Another iteration of the Marlboro brand, the Marlboro Filter Plus, is being sold in South Korea, Russia, Kazakhstan,
and Ukraine. It touts a special filter made of carbon, cellulose acetate, and a tobacco plug that the company claims lowers the tar
level while giving smokers a smoother taste.
One of PMI’s immediate goals is to harness the huge potential
of China’s smoking population, as well as some of that country’s
own brands, which it has agreed to market worldwide. With some
cat29974_case4_01-024.indd 18
350 million smokers, China has 50 million more cigarette buyers
than the U.S. has people, according to Euromonitor.
While smoking rates in developed countries have slowly declined,
they have shot up dramatically in some developing counties where
PMI is a major player. These include Pakistan (up 42 percent since
2001), Ukraine (up 36 percent), and Argentina (up 18 percent).
Since the early 1990s, multinational tobacco companies have
promoted “youth smoking prevention” programs as part of their
“Corporate Social Responsibility” campaigns. The companies have
partnered with third-party allies in Latin America, most notably
nonprofit educational organizations and education and health
ministries to promote youth smoking prevention. Even though
there is no evidence that these programs reduce smoking among
youths, they have met the industry’s goal of portraying the companies as concerned corporate citizens.
In fact, a new study proves that youth smoking prevention ads
created by the tobacco industry and aimed at parents actually increase the likelihood that teens will smoke. The study, “Impact of
Televised Tobacco Industry Smoking Prevention Advertising on
Youth Smoking-Related Beliefs, Intentions and Behavior,” published in the December 2006 issue of the American Journal of Public
Health, sought to understand how the tobacco industry uses “youth
smoking prevention” programs in Latin America. Tobacco industry
documents, so-called social reports, media reports, and material
provided by Latin American public health advocates were all analyzed. The study is the first to examine the specific effect of tobacco
company parent-focused advertising on youth. It found that ads
that the industry claims are aimed at preventing youth from smoking actually provide no benefit to youth. In fact, the ads that are created for parental audiences but also are seen by teens are associated
with stronger intentions by teens to smoke in the future.
Brazil has the world’s strictest governmental laws against
smoking, consisting of highly visible antismoking campaigns, severe controls on advertising, and very high tax rates on smoking
products. Despite these obstacles, the number of smokers in Brazil
continues to grow. In 2006, there were approximately 44 million
smokers in the country, up from 38 million in 1997. Factors driving this trend include the low price of cigarettes, which are among
the lowest in the world; the easy access to tobacco products; and
the actions taken by the powerful tobacco companies to slow down
antismoking legislation in Brazil.
Ethical decision making is not a simplistic “right” or “wrong” determination. Ethical ground rules are complex, tough to sort out
and to prioritize, tough to articulate, and tough to use.
The complexity of ethical decisions is compounded in the international setting, which comprises different cultures, different
perspectives of right and wrong, different legal requirements, and
different goals. Clearly, when U.S. companies conduct business in
an international setting, the ground rules become further complicated by the values, customs, traditions, ethics, and goals of the
host countries, which each have developed their own ground rules
for conducting business.
Three prominent American ethicists have developed a framework to view the ethical implications of strategic decisions by
12/10/12 5:11 PM
Cases 4 Developing Global Marketing Strategies
American firms. They identify three ethical principles that can guide
American managers in assessing the ethical implications of their decisions and the degree to which these decisions reflect these ethical
principles or ground rules. They suggest asking, “Is the corporate
strategy acceptable according to the following ethical ground rules?”
These questions can help uncover the ethical ground rules embedded in the tobacco consumption situation described in this case.
These questions lead to an ethical analysis of the degree to which this
strategy is beneficial or harmful to the parties and, ultimately, whether
it is a “right” or “wrong” strategy, or whether the consequences of this
strategy are ethical or socially responsible for the parties involved.
These ideas are incorporated in the decision tree in Exhibit 1.
Exhibit 1
A Decision Tree for
Incorporating Ethical and
Social Responsibility Issues
into Multinational Business
Utilitarian ethics
(Bentham, Smith)
Rights of the parties
(Kant, Locke)
Justice or fairness
(Aristotle, Rawls)
Does the corporate strategy
optimize the “common good”
or benefits of all constituencies?
Does the corporate strategy
respect the rights of the
individuals involved?
Does the corporate strategy
respect the canons of justice or
fairness to all parties?
Does the decision efficiently optimize
the common good or benefits of:
“The good life”
Economic growth
Allocation of resources
Health and welfare
Production and distribution Self-realization
of goods and services
Human dignity
Are there critical factors that
justify suboptimizing these
goals and satisfactions?
Does the decision respect the
rights of individuals involved?
Are there critical factors
that justify the abrogation
of a right?
Does the corporate decision
respect the canons of justice or
fairness to all parties involved?
Are there critical factors that
justify the violation of a
canon of justice?
cat29974_case4_01-024.indd 19
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Part 6
Supplementary Material
Laczniak and Naor discuss the complexity of international ethics or, more precisely, the ethical assumptions that underlie strategic decisions for multinationals.2 They suggest that multinationals
can develop consistency in their policies by using federal law as
a baseline for appropriate behavior as well as respect for the host
country’s general value structure. They conclude with four recommendations for multinationals:
1. Expand codes of ethics to be worldwide in scope.
2. Expressly consider ethical issues when developing
worldwide corporate strategies.
3. If the firm encounters major ethical dilemmas, consider
withdrawal from the problem market.
4. Develop periodic ethics-impact statements, including
impacts on host parties.
Gene R. Laczniak and Jacob Naor, “Global Ethics: Wrestling with the Corporate
Conscience,” Business, July–September 1985.
See, the World Health Organization’s website,
for more details regarding the current tobacco controversy. See
also for a worldwide student initiative against
1. Use the model in Exhibit 1 as a guide and assess the ethical and social responsibility implications of the situations
2. Can you recommend alternative strategies or solutions to the
dilemmas confronting the tobacco companies? To governments? What is the price of ethical behavior?
3. Should the U.S. government support U.S. tobacco company
interests abroad?
4. Should a company be forced to stop marketing a product that
is not illegal, such as cigarettes?
Sources: “Smoke Over the Horizon; U.S. Gains in Tobacco Control Are Being Offset Internationally,” The Washington Post, July 23, 2006; “Death and Taxes: England Has Become
the Latest in a Series of Countries to Vote for Restrictions on Smoking in Public Places,” Financial Management (UK), April 1, 2006; “Trick or Treat? Tobacco Industry Prevention
Ads Don’t Help Curb Youth Smoking,” PR Newswire, October 31, 2006; “China Exclusive: China, With One Third of World’s Smokers, Promises a ‘Non-Smoking’ Olympics,” Xinhua
News Agency, May 29, 2006; “Tobacco Consumption and Motives for Use in Mexican University Students,” Adolescence, June 22, 2006; “A Change in the Air: Smoking Bans Gain
Momentum Worldwide,” Environmental Health Perspectives, August 1, 2007; “Adams Won’t Kick the BAT Habit: The Head of British American Tobacco Is Stoical About the Looming
Ban on Smoking in Public Spaces: BAT will Adapt,” The Sunday Telegraph London, June 10, 2007; “Heart Disease, Stroke Plague Third World,” Associated Press (Online), April 4,
2006; “Get a Detailed Picture of the Tobacco Industry in Brazil,” M2 Press Wire, December 20, 2007; Vanessa O’Connell, “Philip Morris Readies Global Tobacco Blitz; Division Spinoff Enables Aggressive Product Push; High-Tar Smokes in Asia,” The Wall Street Journal, January 29, 2008; “The Global Tobacco Threat,” The New York Times, February 19, 2008;
“How to Save a Billion Lives; Smoking,” The Economist (London,) February 9, 2008; “Whether Here or There, Cigarettes Still Kill People,” The Wall Street Journal, February 4, 2008;
World Health Organization, 2012.
cat29974_case4_01-024.indd 20
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Socially Responsible and Ethical Marketing Decisions
Star Student
BUS 367: Necessities of International Marketing & Culture
Month Date, Year
Professor Fantastic
Westcliff University
Socially Responsible and Ethical Marketing Decisions
Introduce material here… Remember, each case study must have the headings listed
below and must be answered according to assignment instructions; each heading is worth a
percentage of each case grade and this is how your work should be submitted. Your audience is
someone like your roommate – intelligent, educated, but has NO IDEA what the case study is
about. You do not want to copy-and-paste the case, but put forth a brief summary so your reader
knows what is going on. You also need to ensure that you are reviewing the correct information
online at
This section is generally one paragraph. The easiest way to explain this section is to
think of it like an abstract or introduction. If written properly, this section can actually serve as
the abstract for the paper. It will, in a sense, set up the rest of the paper, which is the review of
the case, analysis, recommendations, and the summary and conclusions sections. Remember that
you obtained this information from the textbook. Consequently, you should cite Cateora, Gilly,
Graham, & Money (2015). You should NOT write According to the textbook as your reader has
NO IDEA who or what is that. Do remember to take notes as you read through the case study
information so that you are prepared to complete this report.
If there is a second paragraph, it will look like this. The paper should be written in third
person narrative and not in the first person. Note: The required headings that must be in the
paper are bolded and should be kept bolded. One other note: a business is an it, not a they.
Remember that when using pronouns describing a business. Make sure you always include
enough text to form a complete paragraph before moving to the next section.
Assessing Ethical and Social Responsibility Implications
In this section, you will briefly describe what you will cover. It should only take a few
sentences. This section will describe “Use the model in Exhibit 1 as a guide and assess the
ethical and social responsibility implications of the situations described.” Describe no more than
two different target markets. Make sure you always include enough text to form a complete
paragraph before moving to the next section.
Recommended Alternative Strategies to Companies
In this section, you will describe “Can you recommend alternative strategies or solutions
to the dilemmas confronting the tobacco companies?” Make sure you always include enough
text to form a complete paragraph before moving to the next section.
Alternatives to Governments
In this section, you will answer the question of “Can you recommend alternative
strategies or solutions to the dilemmas to the government?” Make sure you always include
enough text to form a complete paragraph before moving to the next section. Do not forget to
add outside information to support your statements and ideas, while also remembering to
completely and correctly cite and reference that information.
Price of Ethical Behavior
In this section, you will answer the prompt of “What is the price of ethical behavior?”
Try to make your response as realistic as possible. It must be something that can actually be
performed in business. Make sure you always include enough text to form a complete paragraph
before moving to the next section.
Governmental Support
In this section, you will answer the prompt of “Should the U.S. government support U.S.
tobacco company interests abroad?” Make sure you always include enough text to form a
complete paragraph before moving to the next section. Do not forget to add outside information
to support your statements and ideas, while also remembering to completely and correctly cite
and reference that information.
Governmental Involvement
In this section, you will answer the prompt of “Should a company be forced to stop
marketing a product that is not illegal, such as cigarettes?” Make sure you always include
enough text to form a complete paragraph before moving to the next section. Do not forget to
add outside information to support your statements and ideas, while also remembering to
completely and correctly cite and reference that information.
Topic Video Critical Thinking and Reasoning
In this area you will add the information from your Week 6 ALA about the topic video.
Remember to ensure that the formatting of the content is correct, with Times New Roman 12point font, double line spacing with the first line indent is used. All required information must
be included to earn credit for that portion.
Week One Current Event ALA Slide images
In this area you will add the information from your Week 1 ALA PowerPoint slides
regarding your chosen current events. Note: If you course requires a PowerPoint presentation
(BUS 325, 330, 350, 355, or 390), the Week 1 ALA slides will part of that presentation, and
therefore you would remove this header and prompt.
Summary and Conclusions
This section will tie together all sources used for this comprehensive learning assignment,
conclusions drawn from the readings, and any inconsistencies. This section will generally be one
to two paragraphs. Notice the paper has a continuous flow; there are no page breaks between
sections. The only page breaks occur between the title page and the introduction, and between
the summary or conclusions and the reference page. Top papers demonstrate a solid
understanding of the material AND critical thinking. Note: If there is a header at the bottom of
the page (on the last line), you will need to insert a page break immediately before the header to
properly move it to the next page with its text. All references for the assignment must appear on
a separate page (see the following page for an example). Best practice is to always have at least
4-5-peer-reviewed or academic references, of which one should be your textbook or other
assigned readings.
This section will reference all original work cited throughout the paper. It also gets its
own page, meaning that it will not start at the bottom of a previous page. The heading should
appear at the top of the page (first line of text) and all reference material should be listed below
in alphabetical order by first last name. Also, the title for books is always in italic format and in
sentence form. In contrast to book references, the title for articles is in sentence format, not in
italic, but the name of the journal or magazine is in italics. Furthermore, references are formatted
with a hanging indent, meaning the first line is never indented, and all subsequent lines are
indented. See examples below:
Barzani, R. S. (2014). Studying the effects of business strategies on the organization’s
performance in regards to human resources’ policies at the social security insurance
companies based. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social
Sciences, 4(5), 549-561. Retrieved from
Cateora, P. R., Gilly, M. C., Graham, J. L., & Money, R. B. (2015). International marketing (17th
Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill
Chopra, M., Munro, S., Lavis, J. N., Vist, G., & Bennett, S. (2008). Effects of policy options for
human resources for health: An analysis of systematic reviews. The Lancet, 371(9613),
668-74. Retrieved from
Holt, D. (2016). Branding in the age of social media. Harvard Business Review (online).
Retrieved from:
McShane, S., & Von Glinow, M. (2017). Organizational behavior (8th ed.). New York, NY:
You must also provide a reference for all sources used to support the assignment. (Note: As a
minimum, the textbook and four additional peer-reviewed sources must be used and referenced.)

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How it Works

  • Click on the “Place Order” tab at the top menu or “Order Now” icon at the bottom and a new page will appear with an order form to be filled.
  • Fill in your paper’s requirements in the "PAPER DETAILS" section.
  • Fill in your paper’s academic level, deadline, and the required number of pages from the drop-down menus.
  • Click “CREATE ACCOUNT & SIGN IN” to enter your registration details and get an account with us for record-keeping and then, click on “PROCEED TO CHECKOUT” at the bottom of the page.
  • From there, the payment sections will show, follow the guided payment process and your order will be available for our writing team to work on it.