One of the most crucial components of this course is developing a research project from conceptualizing a research problem and developing a number of measurement and statistical analysis approaches to bring evidence to bear on the problem. Throughout the class, you created a research study based on publicly available data from the General Social Survey (GSS). You chose data which were representative of your interests and satisfied your research question and hypotheses.This Assignment meets these course objectives:CO1: Describe and apply the concepts and logic of elementary statistics.CO2: Conduct statistical analysis in SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences).CO3: Compare and contrast different types of data and the statistics that can be used to analyze themCO4: Examine the differences between descriptive and inferential statistics and their use in the social sciences.CO5: Complete and interpret descriptive and inferential statistical data analysis.CO6: Develop a research project from conceptualizing a research problem and develop a number of complementary design, measurement, and data collection approaches to bring evidence to bear on the problem.CO7: Form critical interpretations of quantitative research literature in sociology and other social sciences, critically evaluating the quality of research design and evidence in published social research.InstructionsThe Final Portfolio Assignment is where you pull together the research you’ve been working on the first seven weeks of class. Using your weekly Discussion posts, and the feedback from your classmates and instructor on your posts, construct a 6+ page paper that fully explores your research topic in a way that provides the context and explanation surrounding the analyses provided in the paper. Your project should display you understand what you are writing about holistically, not simply going through the motions.Citing literature about your research topic, be sure to set the stage for the data and analyses that you present. Briefly describe the General Social Survey as your survey instrument. Provide the questions, verbatim, that were asked in the survey which became the variable which you chose to use. You will also need to include the answer choices for each of them. This portion can be a table if you choose. Share and explain frequency table(s) an histograms or graphs to describe your data. Using the statistical tests you ran each week in class (crosstabs, tests of significance, measures of association), present the tests and your findings. Clearly identify and explain your hypothesis and the five steps of hypothesis testing as they apply to your paper. Explain the results of the statistical tests and pull in some literature to provide context, demonstrating how your results and research fit into the larger body of literature on this topic. Be sure to use proper APA formatting for citations and references. However, you do not need to include an abstract or table of contents. You can find guidance in APA by clicking here to access the Purdue Online Writing Lab.Because the project is a formal, you should include a title page and reference page. You may organize the paper based on the following headings:Introduction – Introduce the topic based in current literature (briefly – show why it is important to study). Discuss why you chose the topic and what the purpose of the paper is. Give a brief overview of what you will cover.Literature Review – Review 3-4 peer-reviewed sources that provide a background on your topic. These sources don’t have to specifically address the relationship between your IV and DV, but should address the topic and be somewhat related to your variables.Methods – Briefly discuss the GSS (information you included in Assignment 1) as your data source. Identify and describe your specific variables, including the name, question, and responses (categories). You may state your hypothesis here, but do not go through the hypothesis testing steps until the next section.Findings – Begin with a discussion of each variable individually, utilizing your frequency tables and charts/graphs. Then discuss your other analyses in logical order. Crosstabs are your first look at a potential relationship. Next, discuss the steps of hypothesis testing. Include the table of your significance test. Last, discuss the strength and direction of the relationship using measures of association. (Be sure you are thorough here. Include all of your analyses done in the discussions!)Discussion – Discussion what you learned from the various analyses and draw any conclusions you found. Talk about any further research you think may be needed on your topic.I have attached my previous assignments done for further assistance. My topic for this assignment is “how financial security impacts marriage” https://gssdataexplorer.norc.org/variables/572/vsh…this is also another link from GSS for my independent variablehttps://gssdataexplorer.norc.org/variables/vfilter…This is also the link to the GSS data for my topic. If you go to this website : https://myibm.ibm.com/products-services/manage/506…try downloading the 30 day free subscription software. It will allow you download and use the software for free and does not require your card information or anything. I have also attached my previous assignments for guidance General requirements:Submissions should be typed, double-spaced, 1″ margins, times new roman 12 pt font, and saved as .doc, .docx, .pdf.Use APA format for citations and referencesView the grading rubric so you understand how you will be assessed on this Assignment. Disclaimer- Originality of attachments will be verified by Turnitin. Both you and your instructor will receive the results.This course has “Resubmission” status enabled to help you if you realized you submitted an incorrect or blank file, or if you need to submit multiple documents as part of your Assignment. Resubmission of an Assignment after it is grades, to attempt a better grade, is not permittedCross-Tabulation
For the intended analysis, the research question of interest is; “Does financial security affect
one’s marital status?”
Null hypothesis: Financial security has no impact on one’s marital status
Alternate hypothesis: Financial security has an impact on one’s marital status
Analysis was carried out in SPSS based on the 2018 GSS dataset. Analysis involved
crosstabulation of the two variables of interest; Marital status, the dependent variable, and
satisfaction with their financial situation, the independent variable. The results of the analysis are
as shown below;
Figure1: SPSS crosstabulation output
Discussion and Conclusion
The results of the analysis show that for individuals satisfied or more or less satisfied with their
financial situation, majority are married. For individuals not satisfied with their financial
situation, majority have never been married. The results therefore show that there is a possibility
that financial security has an impact on one’s marital status. This possibility is further confirmed
by the epsilon values. For married, divorced, and never married rows, the epsilon values
(differences between the highest and lowest column %) are all greater than 10%. The epsilon
values therefore indicate that further statistical analysis is warranted so as to investigate whether
there is sufficient evidence that financial security has an impact on one’s marital status.
Assignment 1: Research Guidelines
Complete the following assignment by filling in all pertinent areas of research. You will need to
utilize SPSS and the GSS dataset specified in the class for this assignment. You should complete
this assignment using the variables and topic that you have chosen for your Final Portfolio
Project. You will then be able to follow this as a guide, as well as a checkpoint, with your
instructor. It is essential that you read all of the feedback regardless of your score. You will be
required to submit:
1. This word document with blanks filled and SPSS outputs inserted. Throughout the
assignment, you will see places where your tables, charts, and graphs can be placed.
2. An SPSS output file (spv) with this assignment for credit.
You may need to go back through the document to address formatting issues that shift as you
begin to input your data. Points will be deducted for sloppiness. Use a different, but legible, color
font for your responses.
This assignment is to completed and submitted no later than the Sunday of Week 3 by 11:55pm
ET. This assignment is worth 100 points. Save the word file as follows [your last
name_SOCI332_A1] and submit it to Assignments for feedback. Label the SPV file as [your last
(A) My Purpose (research question) (10 pts)
1. My research question
The research question formulated for this study states “Does financial security affect one’s
2. I chose this topic because it explores some of the important factors that determines
stability in marriages and marital statuses. The question sought to provide vital
information to whether the current marital statuses have been influenced by financial
situations. The question explores some of the strategies that can be used in addressing
marital issues facing people in marriages in the present century.
3. APA citation of an academic resource that relates to your topic:
Lersch, P. M. (2017). Individual wealth and subjective financial well‐being in marriage:
Resource integration or separation?. Journal of Marriage and Family, 79(5), 1211-1223.
Maier, M., Mattheakis, M., Kaxiras, E., Luskin, M., & Margetis, D. (2019). Homogenization of
plasmonic crystals: seeking the epsilon-near-zero effect. Proceedings of the Royal Society
A, 475(2230), 20190220.
(B) All About the GSS (10 pts) ***Reference Lesson 1 and http://gss.norc.org/faq***
1. Who are the participants?
The participants were people of different marital statuses.
2. What population does the sample represent? The sample represents the population people
with different levels of income
3. Who is funding the research? Government and nongovernmental organizations
4. When is the data collected? Data collection with GSS has been continuous; however, the
data used for my research was collected in 2018.
5. How is the data collected? Data was collected through interview surveys
(C) Variables (You are expected to have only one dependent variable (DV) and one
independent variable (IV). (15 pts)
My IV: Provide information for the IV using the format below.
IV Variable name in SPSS: Marital status
IV Question (as asked to the respondent verbatim)
Are you currently–married, widowed, divorced, separated, or have you never been married?
IV Answer categories:
married, widowed, divorced, separated, or have you never
IV Level of Measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval/ratio):
My DV: Provide information for the DV using the format below.
DV variable name in SPSS: Financial satisfaction
DV Question (as asked to the respondent verbatim)As far as you and your family are concerned, would you say that you are pretty well satisfied
with your present financial situation, more or less satisfied, or not satisfied at all?
DV Answer categories:
Satisfied [ ] More or Less Satisfied [ ] Not at All Satisfied [ ]
DV Level of Measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval/ratio): Nominal
(D) Frequency Tables (15 pts)
Run frequencies for each variable listed above. Summarize your findings in a paragraph or two
below. What do the counts and valid percent tell you about each variable? Cite numbers in the
frequency tables to support your conclusion. Be sure to insert your tables (copy and paste from
SPSS) into this document.
Married people forms the largest percentage of the people who took part in the survey forming
52.2% of the entire population. The second largest population of the participants was those
individuals who were never married forming 21.3%, followed by divorced forming 12.9%. The
least population of participants was those of separated individuals forming 3.5% of the
population. From the statistics above, it is possible to make various comparisons. The first
comparison concerns the population of individuals who are married and the population of
individuals who are either divorced or separated. From the sample population, it can be
concluded rates at which individuals marry (52.7%) is higher than the rates at which individuals
are divorcing or separating 16.4%. Another comparison can be made between devorce and
More or less
Not at all sat
The frequency table indicates that the largest percentage of individuals concerning financial
satisfaction are more or less satisfied(41.1%) and this is followed by individuals who are
satisfied(27.1%) then individuals who are not at all satisfied(24.6%).
(E) Graphs and Charts (10 pts)
Run the appropriate graphs/charts for each of your variables listed above. Summarize your
findings briefly in a paragraph or two. Cite numbers in the graph/charts to support your
conclusion. How does the visual representation help us understand the data? Include a title on
each of your charts and other pertinent labels.
The pie chart and the histogram indicates that the majority of the sample population that took
part in the survy was the married people, followed by individuals who are never married and
then those who devorced and last was widowed.
(F) Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion (15 pts)
Run the measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode) and dispersion (variance, standard
deviation) for each of your variables. Summarize your findings briefly in a paragraph or two.
Which measures are appropriate for nominal, ordinal, or interval/ratio variables? What do these
measures tell us about each variable?
Std. Error of Mean
Std. Error of Skewness
Std. Error of Kurtosis
The mean value of the distribution of responses was 1.86, the mode and the mean are equal but
they are above them mean. Thus, it means that the distribution of values of responses under the
study was positively skewed (Skewness=+1.0002)
(G) Recoding (15 pts)
Choose one of your variables to recode. If you have an interval/ratio variable, you may recode it
into an ordinal variable. If you have two nominal/ordinal variables, recode the one with the most
categories into fewer categories, or check with your instructor on the best option.
Satisfaction with financial situation
MORE OR LESS
NOT AT ALL SAT
(H) Included SPV file (SPSS output of all syntax, tables and charts) – (10 pts)
Assignment 2: Tests of Significance
Throughout this assignment you will review six mock studies. Follow the step-by-step
a. Mock Studies 1 – 3 require you to enter data from scratch. You need to create a data set
for each of the three mock studies by yourself. (Refresh the data entry skill acquired in
b. Mock Studies 4 – 6 require you to use the GSS 2018 dataset. The variables are specified in
each Mock Study.
c. Go through the five steps of hypothesis testing (below) for EVERY mock study.
d. All calculations should be coming from your SPSS. You will need to submit the SPSS
output file (.spv) to get credit for this assignment.
The five steps of hypothesis testing when using SPSS are as follows:
1. State your research hypothesis (H1) and null hypothesis (H0).
2. Identify your significance level (alpha) at .05 or .01, based on the mock study. In Mock
Study One, you are required to use BOTH .05 and .01 to test your hypotheses. For the
remaining mock studies, you only need to use ONE level of significance (either .05 or
.01) as specified in the instructions.
3. Conduct your analysis using SPSS.
4. Look for the valid score for comparison. This score is usually under ‘Sig 2-tail’ or ‘Sig.
2’ or ‘Asymptotic Sig.’ We will call this “p.”
5. Compare the two and apply the following rule:
a. If “p” is < or = alpha, then you reject the null. b. Please explain what this decision means in regards to this mock study. (Ex: Will you recommend counseling services?) Please make sure your answers are clearly distinguishable. Perhaps you could bold your font or use a different color. This assignment is due no later than Sunday of Week 5 by 11:55 pm ET. Save this Word file in the following format: [your last name_SOCI332_A2]. Your spv (SPSS output) file should be labeled [your last name_SOCI332_A2Output]. 1 t-Tests (50 points) Mock Study 1: t-Test for a Single Sample (20 points) 1. Researchers are interested in whether depressed people undergoing group therapy will perform a different number of activities of daily living (ADL) after group therapy than the average for depressed people. More ADL is a positive outcome. The researchers randomly selected 15 depressed clients to undergo a 6-week group therapy program. Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the average number of activities of daily living (shown below in the table) obtained after therapy is significantly different from a mean number of activities of 17 that is typical for depressed people. (Clearly list each step). Test the difference at both the .05 and .01 levels of significance. As part of Step 5, indicate whether the behavioral scientists should recommend group therapy for all depressed people based on evaluation of the null hypothesis at both levels of significance (.05 and .01). Data to be entered in SPSS (instructions below) CLIENT A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O AFTER THERAPY ADL 18 14 11 25 24 17 14 10 23 11 22 19 15 17 23 Step 1: Data managing 1. Open a blank SPSS data file: File→ New→ Data 2. In the blank SPSS data file, create your SPSS data set by entering the number of activities of daily living performed by the depressed clients (numbers listed under AFTER THERAPY - see above) in the Data View window. 2 3. In the Variable View window, change the variable name to “ADL.” Set the decimals to zero. Step 2: SPSS execution a. Click: Analyze → Compare Means → One-Sample T test → use the arrow to move “ADL” to the Variable(s) window on the right. b. Enter the population mean (17) in “Test Value” c. Click OK. Mock Study 2: t- Test for Dependent Means (15 points) 1. Researchers are interested in whether depressed people undergoing group therapy will perform a different number of activities of daily living before and after group therapy. The researchers randomly selected 10 depressed clients in a 6-week group therapy program. Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the observed differences in the numbers of activities of daily living obtained before and after therapy are statistically significant at .05 level of significance. (Clearly list each step). As part of Step 5, indicate whether the researchers should recommend group therapy for all depressed people based on evaluation of the null hypothesis. Data to be entered in SPSS (instructions below) CLIENT A B C D E F G H I J BEFORE THERAPY 11 7 10 13 11 12 9 8 13 12 AFTER THERAPY 17 12 12 21 12 15 16 17 17 8 Step 1: Managing data 1. Open a blank SPSS data file: File→New→Data 2. In the blank SPSS data file, create your SPSS data set by entering the number of activities of daily living performed by the depressed clients (see above) in the Data View window. 3 Enter the “before therapy” scores in the first column and the “after therapy” scores in the second column. 3. In the Variable View window, change the variable name for the first variable to “ADLPRE” and the second variable to “ADLPOST.” Set the decimals for both variables to zero. Step 2: SPSS execution a. Click: Analyze → Compare Means →Paired-Samples t-Test → use the arrow to move ADLPRE under “variable 1” inside Paired Variable(s) window→ and then use the arrow to move ADLPOST under “variable 2” inside Paired Variable(s) window. b. Click OK. Mock Study 3: t-Test for Independent Samples (15 points) 1. Six months after an industrial accident, a researcher has been asked to compare the job satisfaction of employees who participated in counseling sessions with those who chose not to participate. The job satisfaction scores for both groups are reported in the table below. Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the job satisfaction scores of the group that participated in counseling session are statistically different from the scores of employees who chose not to participate in counseling sessions at .01 level of significance. (Clearly list each step). As part of Step 5, indicate whether the researcher should recommend counseling as a method to improve job satisfaction following industrial accidents based on evaluation of the null hypothesis. Data to be entered in SPSS (instructions below) PARTICIPATED IN COUNSELING 36 39 41 36 37 35 37 39 42 DID NOT PARTICIPATE IN COUNSELING 38 36 36 32 30 39 41 35 33 4 Step 1: Data managing 1. Open a blank SPSS data file: File→ New→ Data 2. In the blank SPSS data file, create your SPSS data set by entering the number of activities of daily living performed by those who participated/did not participate in the counseling sessions (reported on previous page). Please create two columns. Column one is the test variable, where you enter ALL the 18 scores in the table. Column 2 is the grouping variable, where you use “1” to indicate if a score is from someone who participated in the counseling sessions; and “0” to indicate if a score is from someone who chose not to participate in the counseling sessions. The data set will look like this in SPSS Data View window: 36 1 39 1 ………. 38 0 36 0 ………. 3. After data entry, go to Variable View window, change the name of the first variable (test variable) to “ADL” and the second variable (grouping variable) as “group.” Set decimals for both variables to zero. Step 2: SPSS execution a. Click: Analyze→ Compare Means→Independent-Samples T Test→ use arrow to move ADL to “Test Variable” → use arrow to move “group” to “Grouping Variable” →when two (? ?) appear, click Define Groups. On the next pop up window, enter “1” for “Group 1” and “0” to “Group 2.” b. Click OK. 5 ANOVA (15 points) Mock study 4: One-Way ANOVA 1. An advertising firm has been hired to assess whether different demographics have different rates of TV watching to help determine their advertising strategy. Using the GSS 2018 data, determine whether hours of tv watched differs by race. Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the observed differences in the number of hours watching TV across three groups are statistically significant at .05 level of significance. (Clearly list each step). As part of Step 5, indicate whether the advertising firm should target each racial group differently (if their habits differ) based on evaluation of the null hypothesis. Variables from GSS 2018 dataset to be used (instructions below): RACE – race of respondent 1 = WHITE 2 = BLACK 3 = OTHER TVHOURS – hours per day watching TV Step 1: Data managing 1. Open a blank SPSS data file: File→ Open Data→ GSS2018.sav (from wherever you have it saved) Step 2: SPSS execution a. Click: Analyze → Compare Means → One-Way ANOVA → use arrow to move TVHOURS to “Dependent Variable list” → use arrow to move RACE to “Factor,” which instructs SPSS to conduct the analysis of variance on the number of activities performed by therapy type. b. Click: Options → Descriptive (to obtain descriptive statistics). c. Click: Continue d. Click: OK. Additional question based on Mock Study 4 2. Describe the circumstances under which you should use ANOVA instead of t-Tests. Explain why t-Tests are inappropriate in these circumstances. 6 Chi-Square (20 points) Mock study 5-1: Chi-Square Test for Goodness of Fit 1. Researchers are interested in whether US adults have different levels of confidence in Congress (legislative branch of the federal government). Following the five steps of hypothesis testing, conduct “goodness of fit” chi-square test to determine whether the observed frequencies are significantly different from the expected frequencies at the .01 level of significance. (Clearly list each step). As part of Step 5, indicate whether the observed frequency is significantly different from the expected frequency when equal number of adults in each confidence category is assumed (100%/3=33%), and what does this mean in regard to this mock study. Variable from GSS 2018 dataset to be used (instructions below): CONLEGIS – confidence in congress 1 = A GREAT DEAL 2 = ONLY SOME 3 = HARDLY ANY Step 1: Data managing 1. Open a blank SPSS data file: File→ Open Data→ GSS2018.sav (from wherever you have it saved) Step 2: SPSS execution a. Click: Analyze → Non-Parametric Tests → Legacy Dialogs → Chi-Square → use the arrow to move CONLEGIS to “Test Variable list.” • This procedure instructs SPSS that the chi-square for goodness of fit should be performed on the confidence in congress variable. Note that “All categories equal” is the default selection in the “Expected Values” box, which means that SPSS will conduct the goodness of fit test using equal expected frequencies for each of the different levels of confidence; in other words, SPSS will assume that the proportions of adults in each level are equal. b. Click OK. Mock study 5-2: Chi-Square Test for Independence 2. Next, researchers categorized the same group from the previous study based on the level of confidence in Congress and how strongly that person identifies with a specific political party. These data are presented below. 7 Following the five steps of hypothesis testing, conduct chi-square test for independence at the .05 level of significance. (Clearly list each step). As part of Step 5, indicate whether the observed frequency is significantly different from the expected frequency, and what that means in regard to this mock study. In other words, does political party affiliation effect one’s confidence in Congress? Variables from GSS 2018 dataset to be used (instructions below): CONLEGIS – confidence in congress (legislative branch of government) 1 = A GREAT DEAL 2 = ONLY SOME 3 = HARDLY ANY PARTYID – political party affiliation 0 = STRONG DEMOCRAT 1 = NOT STR DEMOCRAT 2 = IND NEAR DEMOCRAT 3 = INDEPENDENT 4 = IND NEAR REPUBLICAN 5 = NOT STR REPUBLICAN 6 = STRONG REPUBLICAN 7 = OTHER PARTY Step 1: Data managing 1. Continue to work on the data set already opened in Mock Study 5-1: goodness of fit Chisquare test. Step 2: SPSS execution a. Click: Analyze → Descriptive Statistics → Crosstabs → use arrow to move “PARTYID” to “Column(s)”→ use arrow to move “CONLEGIS” to “Row(s).” (Recall in crosstab, DV is always in the row and IV is always in the column.) b. Click: Statistics → check “Chi-Square.” c. Click: Continue. d. Click: Cells→ check “Expected.” e. Click: Continue. f. Click: OK. 8 Regression (15 points) Mock study 6: Linear Regression 1. Researchers in the field of gerontology are researching the effects of age on mental health. They are using GSS data to gather some preliminary findings. Following the five steps of hypothesis testing, conduct a linear regression analysis to determine whether age affects number of poor mental health days at the .05 level of significance. (Clearly list each step). As part of Step 5, indicate whether there is a significant relationship between age and mental health at the .05 level and what does this mean in regard to this mock study. Should the researchers continue their study? Variables from GSS 2018 dataset to be used (instructions below): AGE – age of respondent MNTLHLTH – Days of poor mental health past 30 days Step 1: Data managing 2. Open a blank SPSS data file: File→ Open Data→ GSS2018.sav (from wherever you have it saved) Step 2: SPSS execution e. Click: Analyze → Regression → Linear → use arrow to move MNTLHLTH to “Dependent list” → use arrow to move AGE to “Independent,” which instructs SPSS to conduct the linear regression on the relationship of age to poor mental health. f. Click: OK. This assignment is due no later than Sunday of Week 5 by 11:55 pm ET. Save this file (as a Word file) in the following format: [your last name_SOCI332_A2]. You must also submit an SPSS output file (.spv) labeled [your last name_SOCI332_A2Output]. 9 Chi-Square Analysis Introduction For the study carried out, the research question of interest is; “Does financial security affect one’s marital status?” Hypothesis: Null hypothesis: Financial security has no impact on one’s marital status Alternate hypothesis: Financial security has an impact on one’s marital status Significance level The significance level used for the test was the 0.05 significance. The null hypothesis was therefore rejected if the p value is lower than 0.05. Analysis Analysis was carried out in SPSS based on the 2018 GSS dataset. Analysis involved carrying out a Chi-square test for the two variables of interest; Marital status, the dependent variable, and satisfaction with their financial situation, the independent variable. The results of the analysis are as shown below; Figure1: SPSS chi-square output Discussion and Conclusion The results of the chi square statistics were statistically significant, x2(8) =99.049, p value =0.000. As the p value is lower than the significance level, we reject the null hypothesis. There is therefore sufficient evidence that financial security has an impact on one’s marital status. Based on the tabulation table, among the married and widowed, a higher percentage are satisfied with their financial situation as opposed to being not at all satisfied. However, among the divorced, separated, and never married, a higher percentage are not at all satisfied with their financial situation as opposed to being satisfied. Based on the findings, we can conclude that financial security has an impact on one’s marital status with many individuals who are financially secure being married or widowed, while majority of those who are not financially secure being either divorced, separated, or never married. However, the cramer’s V value was equal to 0.146 and indicates that the strength of relationship is weak or small. The effect of financial security on marital status is therefore significant but weak. Purchase answer to see full attachment
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