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Hello Sir or Madam,I hope this email finds you save and well. please find all attached bellow for ECE 2115. please be carful for each steps please not to forget doing the pre lab as well. bestSCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND APPLIED SCIENCE
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING
ECE 2115: ENGINEERING ELECTRONICS LABORATORY
Experiment #1:
Solid State Diodes – Testing & Characterization
COMPONENTS
Table 1 – Component List
OBJECTIVES

To use an ohm meter to determine the forward and reverse resistance of different types of diode∙
To use the Diode Test function of the DMM
To obtain one diode i-v characteristic curve by using the information obtained from a test
circuit
To obtain the i-v reverse bias characteristic curve for a Zener diode
To determine the value of the small signal resistance of one diode for different operating
points and using three different techniques: graphically, analytically and by the application of a
small signal
To interpret the results of static and dynamic diode tests
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Experiment #1: Solid State Diodes – Testing & Characterization
INTRODUCTION
Understanding how to use the Analog Discovery 2 is going to be vital to succeeding in Engineering Electronics
this year. The AD2 is where almost any lab starts and what makes the experiments possible. The AD2, digital
multimeter (DMM), and a breadboard will be used in almost every lab this semester, and possibly in future
circuit- or electronics-based labs you take. Becoming familiar and comfortable with it will allow us to spend less
time in future labs getting our experiments set up and more time building and analyzing the circuits we are
interested in observing.
Introduction to the DC Power Supply
A power supply is an electronic device that supplies electric power to a circuit. In any circuit, there needs to be
some power source, and the AD2 will be the source in many labs throughout the semester. You may have also
been provided with 3-24V 2A adjustable DC voltage supplier. Since the AD2 can only output ±5 you will have
to use the adjustable DC voltage supplier for problems that require higher voltages.
Figure 1 – Analog Discovery 2
The Basics:

The AD2 provides up to +5V and -5V power supplies
All the pins on the AD2 and its adapter are labeled, and each pin has a specific output. These outputs
can be found in the AD2’s manual. That manual can be found HERE.
The AD2 can be managed using Digilent’s “Waveform” software. It has multiple tabs that can be
accessed and controlled, including a waveform generator, voltmeter, and power supply (which is the
device used in this lab).
Introduction to the Digital Multimeter (DMM)
A digital multimeter is a multipurpose electronic measurement device that is generally capable of measuring
voltage, current, and resistance. The DMM will be used to make all DC measurements.
Figure 2 – Basic Handheld Multimeter
The Basics:

The DMM can measure voltage (V), current (A), and resistance (Ω).
It has three connections at the bottom right. The first is for DC current between 200mA and 5A. The
second is for voltage, resistance, and DC current under 200m. The third is for ground, also known as
common.
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Experiment #1: Solid State Diodes – Testing & Characterization
Introduction to MultiSim
You have probably used MultiSim before in classes such as Circuit theory, however, if you are unfamiliar, it is a
circuit simulation software that will allow you to digitally make your circuits before you make them in the
physical world. It is an invaluable tool used in almost all your labs for checking you circuit before you spend the
The Basics:

You will need some way to access Multisim. To do so online, you can go to ECE Virtual Lab. The
Shortcut is to go to gwu.apporto.com. From here, you should see something that says ECE Lab, click
the launch and you should be in a virtual computer that has access to Multisim! You can also use
MultiSim live, however this has fewerfeatures, so it is recommended to use the regular Multisim
software.
If you need a refresher on how to use Multisim, the first few labs available in the
circuit theory ECE Course give a good review. You can also find how to
since you can always just use a virtual computer.
If you are having any troubles with getting MultiSim, let your TA know and they
Introduction to the KLY-2402000 DC Power Supply
In previous labs, we have been able to use the AD2 to supply the voltages needed for our circuits. In this
lab, we will see circuits that use more than the 5V the AD2 can supply, so we need to use an auxiliary
Power Supply. In the tool kits, you have been supplied with 2 KLY-2402000 DC Power Supplies. This
device is straightforward to use and can supply voltages greater than 5V. You will use these devices not
only for this lab, but for future labs and the final project as well.
These power supplies come with special adapters, that allow us to probe wires into them so that we can
attach the Power Supplies to our breadboard. To do this, simply take the adapter (shown in Figure 5), and
unscrew the screws seen within. You do not have to unscrew them all the way, just enough to where you
can fit a wire into the ports. The polarity on the adapter is labeled, and it is very important that you know
which side positive and which side is negative, so that you do not damage any of the components within
your circuit. It is recommended that you attach a red wire to the positive terminal, and a black wire to the
negative, so that they are easy to distinguish. In Figure 5, you can see the wires already attached to this
After you have setup and attached the adapter, you can now connect this supply to the breadboard. The
KLY-2402000 can supply 3-24V and up to 2A of current, so it is extremely important that you handle these
devices with care, and always triple check your connections, and this supply can easily burn out capacitors
and Integrated Circuit Chips, or IC’s. To use this supply, you just simply plug it in, and there is a knob on the
top that allows you to adjust the voltage. Turning it clockwise will increase the voltage,
counterclockwise will decrease it and turn it off. Make sure to always have the supply plugged into your
circuit before turning it on.
Figure 3 – Adapter Piece with Red Wire Attached to the positive terminal and Black Wire attached to Negative Terminal
ECE 2115: Engineering Electronics
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Experiment #1: Solid State Diodes – Testing & Characterization
Figure 4–KLY-2402000 Power Supply
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Experiment #1: Solid State Diodes – Testing & Characterization
PRELAB
Part I – Generate Equipment List
1. Read through the lab manual and generate an equipment list.
Part II – Print Specification Sheets
1. Download and print the spec sheets for the four diodes: 1N4148 1N4002, MV5753, 1N751A
2. Use the spec sheets to populate the following table.
Part III – Plotting i-v Curves for Diodes
1.
2.
3.
4.
Read “Tutorial #1 – DC Sweep Analysis in Multisim” on the lab website.
Use the tutorial to plot the i-v characteristic curve for diodes: 1N4002 and 1N751A. Sweep the
voltage to show the i-v characteristic for the range from -1A to +1A. Label the end values for
each curve. Notice the diodes have different part names in Multisim as shown in Table 1 above.
Plot only the forward characteristic i-v curve for the two diodes: 1N4002 and 1N751A. Sweep
the voltage such that it shows the i-v characteristic for the range from 0mA to 20mA. a. Do your
graphs line up with the values collected from the spec sheets in Table P.1?
Memorize the following in the event of a pre-lab quiz:
a. The symbols for a diode, LED, and zener diode (which terminal is anode/cathode) . Be
able to identify the 4 diodes in your kit on sight
b. The forward region i-v relationship equation (given later in this lab manual)
c. Know the shape of a typical diode i-v Curve
d. Read the rest of the lab manual to have a general understanding of how we will use the
data you have generated in this prelab.
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Experiment #1: Solid State Diodes – Testing & Characterization
LAB
Part I – Data & Static Diode Tests
1. Prepare a table with the four diodes in the left column and the parameters you will record as titles
2. Set the DMM to measure resistance (Ohms).
3. Connect the positive lead from the DMM to the anode of the diode and the negative lead from
the DMM to the cathode of the diode.
4. Measure and record the forward direction resistance (Rf) of D1, D2, D3, and D4.
5. Reverse the direction of the leads to measure and record the reverse direction resistance (Rr) of
D1, D2, D3, and D4. Place this data in your table.
6. Calculate the back to front ratio (Rr/Rf) for D1, D2, D3, and D4. Record this data in your table.
7. Set the DMM to perform a diode test (look for the diode symbol).
8. Measure and record the forward bias voltage readings for D1, D2, D3, and D4. This information
Part II – Reverse Saturation Current
1.
Construct the circuit depicted in Figure 2.1 on a breadboard using the following
specifications:
a. Vd = -10V
(You will need to use the voltage adapter for this part, plug in the provided adapter to the
end of the power supply cable, then input 2 separate wires into the square ports at the
end of the adapter. Make sure you tighten the screws to ensure that the wires are held in
place. Now, to turn on the power supply, turn the dial to 10V. BE CAREFUL, this is live
electricity and WILL hurt. To get the -10V like you need to, plug the negative terminal
into the positive and the positive into the negative.)
b. R = R2 (see Table 1)
c. D = D1 (see Table 1)
Figure 2.1 – Diode Test Circuit
2. Measure the reverse saturation current IS of the diode using the DMM. (Remember, to measure
current, you turn you DMM to current and you put it in SERIES with the circuit)
3. Repeat this procedure for diode D2.
4. What is the value of IS that Multisim uses to model this diode D2 (look at the SPICE model
settings under the part properties)?
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Experiment #1: Solid State Diodes – Testing & Characterization
Part III – Forward i-v Characteristic
Figure 2.2 – Diode Test Circuit for Finding Forward i-v Characteristic
1. Build the circuit shown above. The goal is to generate the i-v curve for the diode as you did in the
prelab. The DC Voltage Source above is the 3-24V Adjustable power Source.
2. Using diode D1, vary ID by changing the V of the Voltage Source. With a Voltage of 3.6V, you
should have a Current of roughly 2mA. When the Voltage is 6.6 V, the current should be 4mA and
ect. This trend should continue up until 24.6V being roughly 16mA. Do this for 2mA to 16mA in steps
of 2mA. Use your DMM to confirm the Current and to Record the voltage drop (VD) across the diode
for each value of ID. Repeat this procedure for diodes D2, D3, and D4. Make sure you are checking
the Current values for the circuit for these diodes so that you have ID equaling the correct 2mA, 4mA,
ect.
Note: This problem originally called for you to use a current source. However, since you do not
have one, a different way to achieve the same must be employed
3. In either Microsoft Excel or MATLAB, plot the values obtained in step 2 and those predicted by
Equation 1 (you should have two overlapping curves: expected and measured for each diode).
4. Mark the point on the measured i-v curve that indicates the voltage drop across the diode when
the forward current is equal to 10mA and again when the forward current is equal to 20mA.
5. In the forward region, the i-v relationship is closely approximated by:
6. Use the two points you have marked on the i-v curve (Id = 6mA, Vd) and (Id = 12mA, Vd) to
determine the values of n and IS. You have two equations and two unknowns. Do this for diodes
D1 and D2.
7. Compare the values of IS obtained in Part II with the values you have calculated in Part III for
ECE 2115: Engineering Electronics
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Experiment #1: Solid State Diodes – Testing & Characterization
diodes D1 and D2
Part IV – Small Signal Analysis (Multisim Extra Credit)
1. Compute rD analytically for I = 6 , and for D = 14 using =

=

I
estimated the value for
2. Compute the small signal resistance for 2graphically for D = 6 , and for = 14 using =

and Plot #2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
Build the circuit shown above in Multisim. C1 can be found in the table on page 1.
Set = 14 , s = 15 , 100 kHz sinusoidal signal, and measure ( ) ( )

Compute the small signal resistance of the diode for this operating point: =
Compare the values of r obtained by the 3 different techniques.
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Experiment #1: Solid State Diodes – Testing & Characterization
POST-LAB ANALYSIS
In your prelab and in the lab, you have used 2 different techniques to obtain the i-v characteristic curves
for the diodes: Simulation-based and Digital Multimeter-based. Compare and contrast the methods in
your analysis. In addition, compare the data you have collected to the data specifications from the
manufacturer. If the data collected is not accurate, calculate percent error in each case.
ECE 2115: Engineering Electronics
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SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND APPLIED SCIENCE
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING
ECE 2115: ENGINEERING ELECTRONICS LABORATORY
Experiment #2:
Solid State Diodes – Applications I
OBJECTIVES
∙ To measure the output characteristics of your transformer
∙ To build and safely test a half wave rectifier
∙ To build and safely test a full wave rectifier
∙ To build and safely test a bridge rectifier
∙ To design, build, and test a voltage doubler
ECE 2115: Engineering Electronics
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Experiment #2: Solid State Diodes – Applications I
Introduction
In this lab, you will need to know how to use your AD2, and in particular the oscilloscope functionality of the AD2, in
order to successfully do all the tasks. If you need a refresher on how to do this, go to Lab 2 of ECE 2110 (Circuit
Theory) since this gives you all you need to know!
Introduction to the Oscilloscope
An oscilloscope is an electronic measurement instrument that unobtrusively monitors input signals and then
graphically displays these signals in a simple voltage versus time format [1].
The Basics:
• An oscilloscope measures and displays voltage as it changes with time.
• It consists of a display screen with an X & Y-axis and control panel seen on the right-hand side.
• The X-axis of the display represents time.
• The Y-axis represents voltage.
• Each input channel has its own separate controls.
Setting the Scales for the Oscilloscope’s X & Y-Axes
Let us begin by first getting acquainted with the most important controls on the oscilloscope. On the right-hand
side of the oscilloscope are the two main controls for each input Channel, shown in Figure 5. These drop
downs allow you to set the “Offset” and the “Range”. The Offset moves the waveforms up and down along the
Y Axis. This is useful for when we need to separate the waveforms on screen. The Range adjusts the scaling of
the Y Axis, and is labeled V/div, volts per division. You will find that as you increase the V/div value, the “size”
of the wave will shrink. The actual value of the wave is not changing, but you are increasing the scale of the Y
Axis, so the graph will adjust accordingly. If you lower the V/div value, the wave will appear to grow. Again, the
value of the actual wave is not changing, you are now decreasing the scale and the graph adjusts accordingly.
The Range should be set at a value where you can see both peaks of each wave.
Another useful tool within the Oscilloscope is the “Time” feature, which can be found directly above the Channel
controls. With this, we can jump to a specific point in time with the “position” feature. This is useful because it not
only allows us to see the start of our circuit, but we can jump to a specific point where maybe something went wrong
within the circuit, allowing us to troubleshoot. This number can be adjusted with the drop-down bar with set time
values, by typing in your own value, or by clicking and dragging the white down arrow at the top of the oscilloscope
screen. This value can also be changed by clicking on the graph and dragging either left or right. You will see the
position value adjust accordingly. The other value is the “Base”. Like V/div adjusted the scale of the Y Axis, the base
adjusts the scale of the X Axis, but for both channels. The X Axis is measured in seconds per division, or sec/div.
This is useful because it can help us home in on one specific cycle or see multiple cycles. This value can also be
adjusted by scrolling in or out with the mouse pad or scroll wheel. It is worth noting that the green arrow below the
Base value will allow you to change more features along the X Axis. Unless otherwise specified in the lab, you can
just leave these values as is.
Key Points:
• The value of the X-axis scale is set using the Time feature, and is measured insec/div. • The value of the Y-axis
scale is set under each channel, and is measured in Volts/div. • Both the X and Y Axis can also be adjusted with the
mouse.
• Pressing the check button next to each channel will turn on/off the display of that individual channel.
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Experiment #2: Solid State Diodes – Applications I
More Important Features
There are many tabs above the Oscilloscope screen, starting with “Export” on the left, all the way to
“Measurements” on the right. While you can watch this video to get a full explanation of each of these tabs, the two
most important ones are the “Measurements” tab and the “X Cursors” tab. THE MEASUREMENTS TABS DO NOT
CREATE THE SAME MENU. To get all the Measurements you will need for this lab and all other labs, it is best to
use the Measurements tab that is closer to middle, NOT the one on the far right. The Measurements tab opens a
new menu that appears to the left of the Channel controls. By clicking the “Add” button that appears within this
menu, we can have the Oscilloscope display very useful data about our waves, on both channels. If we accidentally
add a measurement that we do not need, we can simply press the red minus button that is directly right to the Add
button. The other important tab is the X cursors tab. This will bring up a menu directly below the Oscilloscope
screen. We can add either “Normal” cursors or “Delta” cursors. In this lab, we will use both cursors and see what
they do.
A quick note on the AD2’s internal wiring: It should be mentioned that the Wavegen and both Channels of the
Oscilloscope are internally grounded, meaning that when you go to build the circuits in this class, only the positive
ends of these devices are needed when measuring with respect to ground. If you are not measuring with respect to
ground, and you want to measure across one specific component, you must use the negative ends of the
Oscilloscope Channels (Wires 1- and 2-). These wires will have a white line on them, indicating that they are the
negative ends.
Key Points:
• There are many different features available to us with this Oscilloscope, but not all are needed for our purposes.
• It is important to know which “Measurements” tab you are using. The one on the far right will not give you all the
measurements you need to display.
• If you ever need to remove a measurement of the cursor, there will be a red minus button that will delete them.
• You can also remove both menus from your screen by simply pressing the “x” button at the top right-hand corner of
both.
Multiple Channels
• The oscilloscope only has two separate input channels, allowing two different signals to be displayed on the screen
simultaneously (Figure 10 shows an example with two signals).
• The Offset values allow each signal to be shifted up and down independently of one another. This can be done to
separate overlapping signals and to position the signals to make it easier to estimate their amplitudes. In Figure 10,
the blue (channel-2) has been shifted slightly lower than channel-1.
Waveform Math
• Oscilloscopes cannot directly measure the voltage across a component unless one end of the component is
grounded. Instead, oscilloscope measurements are limited to node-voltage measurements (node voltages are
measured with respect to ground by definition).
• For an oscilloscope to measure the voltage across a component, the node voltage waveforms on each side of the
component must be acquired and then subtracted.
• The oscilloscope can perform the following math functions:
o Add, Subtract, Multiply, Divide, RMS, ATan, AC, and offset.
• Waveform Math is turned on and the Math menu is accessed by pressing the Add Channel button above channel
1 and 2, and then by pressing “Simple” on the drop-down menu.
Set Up and Using
Set up the desired measurements to be displayed. In the oscilloscope you will see a “Measurements” section
on the right-hand side. Press the “Add” button then Click “Defined Measurement”. After this, click “Channel 1”
then Click “Vertical”. Now you may Add the “Maximum”, “Minimum”, and “DC RMS” measurements, along with
a few others. After this, you can also Click Horizontal and Add the “Frequency” measurement. Now you Click
“Close”. To Configure the digital oscilloscope, you can Adjust the vertical Volts/div until the entire signal is
visible. You may also Adjust the horizontal sec/div until the desired waveform is seen on the display. You can
use either the drop down or the scroll wheel on a mouse
ECE 2115: Engineering Electronics
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Experiment #2: Solid State Diodes – Applications I
PRELAB
Part I – Generate Equipment List
1. Read through the lab manual and generate an equipment list.
Part II – Specification Sheet Values
1. Download and print the specification sheet for the transformer in your kit: Hammond #166K18 (See the lab
2115 parts kit)
a. From the spec sheet, find the transformer with your model number and populate the following table for each
characteristic of the transformer.
Note: C.T. on the spec sheet means Center-Tapped.
Part III – Transformer Simulations
1. Read “Tutorial #2 – Simulating Transformers in Multisim” on the lab website.
2. Use the tutorial and values from Table P.1 to construct a center-tapped transformer with a turn ratio that
matches the transformer in your kit.
3. Run a transient analysis in Multisim to plot 10 cycles of the primary and secondary voltage.
4. Use the transformer you have built in step 2 to construct the three different rectifying circuits in Figures P.1,
P.2, and P.3. For the circuits that use a “non-center tapped” transformer, simply use the top-half of the
secondary coil of your center-tapped transformer. Include the plots of the voltage across R1 in your prelab. If
you are unfamiliar with what each rectifier does, read sections 3.5 – 3.5.3 (in Sedra) to understand them
further.
ECE 2115: Engineering Electronics
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Experiment #2: Solid State Diodes – Applications I
5. In the event of a prelab quiz, be prepared to draw the three waveforms that would result from each of the rectifier
circuits.
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Experiment
#2: Solid State
Diodes – Applications I
Part
IV – Voltage
Doubler
1. Design and build a Voltage Doubler Circuit that meets the following specifications:
∙ Input: 12VP (output of the top half of your transformer’s secondary)
∙ Output: -24V +/- 5%
∙ Max power dissipated by load resistor: 100mW
2. Using Multisim and section 3.6.3 of your textbook (p 189 in 5th edition Sedra), design, build, and simulate a
voltage doubler circuit. For the AC voltage source in the textbook, you will use the top half of the secondary coil
of the center-tapped transformer you have been simulating with thus far. Experiment with the various size
capacitors available in your ECE 2115 kit to reduce the time the circuit requires to reach its steady state.
3. Figure P.5 shows a successful doubling of a Vsource = 9VRMS (12.586VP) source. The red trace shows a nearly
doubled value of -23.88V, which is nearly |2VP|. Notice steady state for the circuit is not reached for roughly 6
cycles.
Note: The red trace is nearly a DC signal, which is the purpose of a voltage doubler.
Figure P.5 – Secondary Coil Voltage and Output Voltage Across Load Resistor
ECE 2115: Engineering Electronics
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Experiment
#2: Solid
State
Diodes
– Applications
4. Figure P.6
shows
the
power
dissipated Iby the load resistor PL is roughly 100mW. You
must choose an appropriately sized load resistor for your voltage doubler so that it dissipates no more than 100mW
of power.
Figure P.6 – Output Power Dissipated by Load Resistor
ECE 2115: Engineering Electronics
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Experiment
#2: Solid State Diodes – Applications I
LAB
Caution!
❖ Be very careful during this experiment!
❖ Hazardous voltages will be present when you perform your measurements!
❖ The transformer in this lab has a primary voltage of roughly 120V RMS.
❖ If not handled properly, injury can occur from your transformer.
Part I – Determining the Turn Ratio of the Transformer
Figure 1.1 – Center-Tapped Transformer Schematic
1. Plug all of the output wires coming from the secondary coil of the transformer into a breadboard before
connecting it to the AC outlet.
2. Plug the transformer into an AC outlet located on your bench.
3. Your GTA will measure the primary coil’s voltage and announce it to the lab.
a. Record it as V1RMS.
b. Calculate V1P and V1PP for the primary coil and record your results in a table.
4. Use the DMM to measure the voltage across the TOP HALF of the secondary coil.
a. Record the voltage as V2TOP_RMS, calculate VP and VPP, and record this in the table.
5. Use the DMM to measure the voltage across the BOTTOM HALF of the secondary coil.
a. Record the voltage as V2BOTTOM_RMS, calculate VP and VPP and record this in the table.
6. Use the DMM to measure the voltage across the ENTIRE secondary coil (green to green wire).
a. Record the voltage as V2RMS, calculate VP and VPP, and record this in the table. 7. Determine the turns ratio
1
( 2 ) and record this in the table.

8. Connect the oscilloscope (in this case, you will be using the AD2 as your oscilloscope) only to the
secondary. Never connect the scope to the primary! The negative lead on the scope probe is ground. If you
connect this lead to the primary, you will cause 120VRMS at 20A to short through your probe to ground!
a. Use the scope to measure the voltages across the TOP HALF, BOTTOM HALF, and across the ENTIRE
secondary coil. You should have three different waveforms.
b. Save each waveform on a USB and include in the lab report. Be sure to measure the frequency, VRMS, and VP
of each waveform you record.
c. Label the plots appropriately in the lab report.
9. Disconnect the transformer from the AC outlet!
10. Calculate V1PP, and V2PP from the VP measured by the oscilloscope and record in a table.
ECE 2115: Engineering Electronics
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Experiment
#2: Solidthe
State
Diodes
– Applications
Part
II – Testing
Half
Wave
RectifierI
1. Construct the half wave rectifier circuit shown above in Figure 2.1
Note: Even though the bottom half of the secondary is not used in this circuit, be sure to plug the lead into an
empty spot on the breadboard so that it is not dangerously hanging out of the circuit.
2. Test the circuit for a possible short to ground with an Ohmmeter. Correct any wiring errors and test again.
3. Connect the transformer to an AC outlet.
4. Measure and record the waveform across R1 using the oscilloscope. Include any relevant measurements.
5. Disconnect the transformer from the AC outlet!
Part III – Testing the Full Wave Rectifier
ECE 2115: Engineering Electronics
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Experiment #2: Solid State Diodes – Applications I
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Construct the full wave rectifier circuit shown above in Figure 3.1.
Test the circuit for a possible short to ground with an Ohmmeter. Correct any wiring errors and test again
Connect the transformer to an AC outlet.
Measure and record the waveform across R1 using the oscilloscope. Include any relevant measurements.
Disconnect the transformer from the AC outlet!
Part IV – Testing the Bridge Rectifier
ECE 2115: Engineering Electronics
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Experiment #2: Solid State Diodes – Applications I
1. Construct the bridge rectifier circuit shown above in Figure 4.1.
Note: Even though the bottom half of the secondary is not used in this circuit, be sure to plug the lead into an
empty spot on the breadboard so that it is not dangerously hanging out of the circuit.
2. Test the circuit for a possible short to ground with an Ohmmeter. Correct any wiring errors and test again.
3. Connect the transformer to an AC outlet.
4. Measure and record the waveform across R1 using the oscilloscope. Include any relevant measurements.
5. Disconnect the transformer from the AC outlet!
Part V – Testing the Voltage Doubler
ECE 2115: Engineering Electronics
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Experiment #2: Solid State Diodes – Applications I
1. Build the voltage doubler designed in the prelab.
Note: The load resistor should NOT be 16kΩ. Instead, it should be the value you calculated based on the desired
100mW power dissipation goal of the design.
2. Use the oscilloscope to measure the voltages found during simulation.
3. Save the output waveform from the oscilloscope to a USB.
ECE 2115: Engineering Electronics
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Experiment
#2:A
Solid
State Diodes – Applications I
POST-LAB
NALYSIS
1. Compare the measured results of the output of your transformer to those obtained using Multisim. Include in
your comparison all waveforms and the details of what you measured.
2. Compare the measured results of each type of positive rectifier to those obtained using Multisim. Include in your
comparison all waveforms and details of what you measured. 3. For each rectifier plot, indicate what is occurring in
each region. As an example, explain which diodes are on and off in each region.
4. Why would one use a bridge rectifier over a full wave rectifier?
5. Explain the theory behind the voltage doubler you designed. Show all waveforms and explain what each
component does.
ECE 2115: Engineering Electronics
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SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND APPLIED SCIENCE
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING
ECE 2115: ENGINEERING ELECTRONICS LABORATORY
Experiment #3:
Solid State Diodes – Applications II
COMPONENTS
OBJECTIVES
∙ Use zener diodes and varistors as overvoltage protection (e.g., to protect high impedance
bioamplifier inputs)
∙ To learn how to build and analyze a thermistor instrumentation device
∙ To learn how to use diodes for protection/limiting circuits
ECE 2115: Engineering Electronics
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Experiment #3: Solid State Diodes – Applications I
Introduction:
In this lab, you will once again have to use your AD2 as an oscilloscope. Check back to
the last lab to get a refresher on how to do this. Alternatively, you may also check the lab
from circuit theory. You will also have to use your AD2 as a waveform generator in this
lab. This is, again, talked about in Circuit Theory Lab 2. An overview is also provided for
Introduction to the Function Generator in WaveForms
A function generator (Wavegen) is an electronic instrument that produces a voltage that varies
with time. This function or waveform that is output from the function generator (Wavegen) can
be used as the input signal to different circuits in a variety of applications.
The Basics:
• A function generator (Wavegen) produces time-varying voltage signals that can be used in
AC circuits
• The function generators (Wavegen) used in this lab have two independent output channels.
• The time-varying signal can be configured using the following parameters:
o Waveform: basic types of waveforms are sine, square, and triangle
o Frequency: number of repetitions per unit time (Hz)
o Amplitude: voltage magnitude of the signal (may be defined by Vpk or Vpp)
o Offset: DC offset of the signal (in voltage) with respect to ground
o Phase Shift: offset of the signal (in time) with respect to an unshifted signal
To generate the desired Waveform, ensure that the Sine waveform is selected. Then
Configure the necessary Parameters: Frequency, Amplitude, and DC Offset as well as Phase.
Then you turn it on.
ECE 2115: Engineering Electronics
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Experiment #3: Solid State Diodes – Applications I
PRELAB
Part I – Generate Equipment List
1. Read through the lab manual and generate an equipment list.
Part II – Specification Sheet Values
your ECE 2115 parts kit list)
a. From the spec sheet, find the thermistor with your model number and populate the following
table.
LAB
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Experiment #3: Solid State Diodes – Applications I
Part I – Thermistor Calibration
A thermistor is a semiconducting device whose resistance depends strongly on temperature.
Therefore, it is very sensitive to temperature changes. It is often used as part of a simple
circuit as shown below.
The voltage ratio is independent of the battery voltage so that small drifts in a simple 9V battery will not affect
the measurement of RThermistor.
1. Build the thermistor circuit shown using a 9V battery as the power source and a 2.2kΩ resistor in addition to
the thermistor.
2. Calibrate the output voltage with temperature:
a. Measure the voltage output with the thermistor in the room temperature air. b. Measure the temperature
with a thermometer.
c. Place the thermistor in the supplied warm, cold, and room temperature water baths and record the output
voltages.
3. Plot the voltage output of the circuit and the temperature to calibrate the device. a. Is this plot linear?
Part II – Diodes as Protection Circuits
As you discovered in Lab #1, diodes have low resistances to current flow in one direction and high resistances
ECE 2115: Engineering Electronics
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Experiment #3: Solid State Diodes – Applications I
in the other direction. This property can make them very useful in constructing circuits that can prevent large
voltages from damaging sensitive measurement equipment in the laboratory and hospital environments
1. Build the circuit shown above. Use the DC power supplies from lab 1 for the two DC
voltage sources.
2. Apply a sinusoidal voltage Vin at a frequency of 1kHz using the AD2 for the following
cases:
a. Vin = 2VP
b. Vin = 6VP
c. Vin = 10VP
Note: Be sure that your oscilloscope is DC coupled.
3. Use the oscilloscope to measure the voltage across the 2.2kΩ resistor for each of the three
input voltages. Save an image with both the input voltage waveform and the voltage across
the resistor on the same graph.
Note: Remember that you must use the MATH function on the oscilloscope to measure the
voltage drop across R1.
POST-LAB ANALYSIS
1. Explain the shape of the waveform of the output voltage and the voltage across the 2.2kΩ
ECE 2115: Engineering Electronics
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Experiment #3: Solid State Diodes – Applications I
resistor for each of the three experimental cases.
2. From your observations of the three cases, explain why the diode protection circuit is also
called a clipper or a limiter circuit.
3. List two practical applications of a thermistor. Explain how it would be used. 4. Does the
resistance of a thermistor go up or down as the temperature increases?
ECE 2115: Engineering Electronics
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SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND APPLIED SCIENCE
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING
ECE 2115: ENGINEERING ELECTRONICS LABORATORY
Experiment #4:
Solid State Diodes – Applications III
COMPONENTS
OBJECTIVES
∙ To design, build and test a Zener regulator circuit
∙ To design, build and test a 5 VDC regulated power supply
∙ To design a filter circuit
∙ To measure ripple voltage and obtain the ripple factor
ECE 2115: Engineering Electronics
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Experiment #4: Solid State Diodes – Applications III
PRELAB
Part I – Generate Equipment List
1. Read through the lab manual and generate an equipment list.
Part II – Specification Sheet Values
1. Download and print the specification sheet for the 1N751A zener diode, MV5753 LED, and the LM7805
regulator IC.
parts kit list)
a. From the spec sheet, populate the following table.
Part III – Zener Regulator
1. Use the zener diode in your kit (1N751A) and the spec sheet values you collected in Table P.1 to design a
zener regulator circuit that has the specifications below.
∙ Input: 8.13VDC + 1.87VDC
∙ Output (unloaded): 5.1VDC + 5 %
∙ Output (loaded): 5.1VDC + 5 %
∙ Type of Load: resistive, 300Ω
2. Simulate your circuit design using Multisim.
3. Include all calculations, the complete schematic, and output plots to ensure the regulator is putting out a
constant 5.1V in your prelab writeup.
Note: To aid you with the regulator design, read sections 4.4.1 – 4.4.2 and use Example 4.7 as a reference.
ECE 2115: Engineering Electronics
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Experiment #4: Solid State Diodes – Applications III
Part IV – 5V AC-DC Power Supply
1. Cascade the center-tapped transformer, full wave rectifier, a filter capacitor, and the zener
regulator (similar to the one designed in Part III) to create a basic AC-to-DC power supply with the following
specifications.
∙ Line Input Voltage: 115VRMS
∙ Regulated Output Voltage: 5.1VDC + 5%
∙ Type of Load: To be calculated using power dissipation parameter
∙ Power Dissipated by the Load: 175mWDC
∙ Ripple: Minimum
2. Figure P.1 shows a block diagram of the necessary circuits cascaded to create a basic AC-to-DC power
supply. It is similar to Figure 4.20 in the Sedra textbook.
3. Include all calculations, the complete schematic, and output plots of the output voltage at each block of the
circuit schematic below. Be sure to place markers on your plots to make it clear that your circuit is working.
Note: The 175mW requirement may force you to change your Zener regulator calculations.
4. Extra Credit (good preparation for midterm project):
a. Add a red LED (MV5753) to your AC-DC power supply to indicate when the circuit has 5.1V across
it. Show the necessary adjustment needed in your power calculations to include the LED.
Note: Adding the LED may force you to change your Zener regulator calculations.
1. Be prepared for a possible prelab quiz on zener diode operation.
2. Look ahead to the midterm project and begin to see the similarities between this lab and the project.
Prepare questions for your GTA regarding the project.
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Experiment #4: Solid State Diodes – Applications III
LAB
Caution!
❖ Be very careful during this experiment!
❖ Hazardous voltages will be present when you perform your measurements! ❖ The transformer in
this lab has a primary voltage of roughly 120VRMS.
❖ If not handled properly, injury can occur from your transformer.
Part I – Zener Regulator
1. Build the zener regulator circuit you designed in Part III of the prelab.
2. Use the DMM to measure the DC output voltage to verify the correct operation of your design.
3. Increase the DC input voltage and record the output voltage. Take enough readings to prove that your
circuit is “regulating” the output voltage across the 300Ω resistor.
a. Record the values for the input and output voltage in a table.
4. Calculate the load regulation value (Sedra Example 4.7 page 192), show all calculations.
Part II – 5V AC-DC Power Supply
1. Build the AC-DC power supply you designed in Part IV of the prelab.
2. Verify the operation of your circuit using the DMM and an oscilloscope. Test it with and without the load,
measure the ripple, and calculate the ripple factor for your circuit. Include plots showing the output voltage for
Extra Credit
1. Adjust your AC-DC design to include the LED indicator light you calculated for in the prelab.
2. Your GTA will explain the operation of the LM7805 – Voltage Regulator IC. Once explained, attempt to use
this in place of your zener regulator in your AC-DC power supply. Verify that the operation of your supply is
the same (if not better) than with the zener regulator.
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Experiment #4: Solid State Diodes – Applications III
POST-LAB ANALYSIS
1. Explain the design considerations and characteristics of each of the circuits in this experiment: the Zener
regulator and the 5VDC regulator.
ECE 2115: Engineering Electronics
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