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Please help me with my assignment in latex form, all the requirement are in the pdf.COMPSCI/SFWRENG 2FA3
Discrete Mathematics with Applications II
Winter 2021
Assignment 3
Dr. William M. Farmer and Dr. Mehrnoosh Askarpour
McMaster University
Revised: February 7, 2021
Assignment 1 consists of some background definitions, two sample problems, and two required problems. You must write your solutions to the
required problems using LaTeX. Use the solutions of the sample problems
as a guide.
Please submit Assignment 1 as two files, Assignment 1 YourMacID.tex
and Assignment 1 YourMacID.pdf, to the Assignment 1 folder on Avenue
under Assessments/Assignments. YourMacID must be your personal MacID
(written without capitalization). The Assignment 1 YourMacID.tex file is
a copy of the LaTeX source file for this assignment (Assignment 1.tex
found on Avenue under Contents/Assignments) with your solution entered
after each required problem. The Assignment 1 YourMacID.pdf is the PDF
output produced by executing
pdflatex Assignment 1 YourMacID
This assignment is due Sunday, February 12, 2021 before midnight. You are allow to submit the assignment multiple times, but only
the last submission will be marked. Late submissions and files that are
not named exactly as specified above will not be accepted! It is
suggested that you submit your preliminary Assignment 1 YourMacID.tex
and Assignment 1 YourMacID.pdf files well before the deadline so that your
mark is not zero if, e.g., your computer fails at 11:50 PM on February 12.
Although you are allowed to receive help from the instructional
Copying will be treated as academic dishonesty! If any of the
ideas used in your submission were obtained from other students
or sources outside of the lectures and tutorials, you must acknowledge where or from whom these ideas were obtained.
Background
A word over an alphabet Σ of symbols is a string
a1 a2 a3 · · ·an
1
of symbols from Σ. For example, if Σ = {a, b, c}, then the following are
words over Σ among many others:
• cbaca.
• ba.
• acbbca.
• a
• (which denotes the empty word).
Let Σ∗ be the set of all words over Σ (which includes , the empty word).
Associated with each word w ∈ Σ∗ is a set of positions. For example, {1, 2, 3}
is set of positions of the word abc with the symbol a occupying position 1,
b occupying position 2, and c occupying position 3. If u, v ∈ Σ∗ , uv is the
word in Σ∗ that results from concatenating u and v. For example, if u = aba
and v = bba, then uv = ababba.
A language L over Σ is a subset of Σ∗ . A language can be specified by
a first-order formula in which the quantifiers range over the set of positions
in a word. In order to write such formulas we need some predicates on
positions. last(x) asserts that position x is the last position in a word. For
a ∈ Σ, a(x) asserts that the symbol a occupies position x. For example, the
formula
∀ x . last(x) → a(x)
says the symbol a occupies the last position of a word. This formula is true,
e.g., for the words aaa, a, and bca.
The language over Σ specified by a formula is the set of words in Σ∗ for
which the formula is true. For example, if a ∈ Σ, then ∀ x . last(x) → a(x)
specifies the language {ua | u ∈ Σ∗ }.
Problems
1. [12 points] Let Σ be a finite alphabet and Σ∗ be the set of words over
Σ. Define u ≤ v to be mean there are x, y ∈ Σ∗ such that xuy = v.
That is, u ≤ v holds iff u is a subword of v.
a. Prove that (Σ∗ , ≤) is a weak partial order.
b. Prove that (Σ∗ , ≤) is not a weak total order.
c. Does (Σ∗ , ≤) have a minimum element? Justify your answer.
d. Does (Σ∗ , ≤) have a maximum element? Justify your answer.
2. [8 points] Let Σ = {a, b, c} be a finite alphabet. Construct formulas
that specify the following languages over Σ.
2
a. {awa | w ∈ Σ∗ }.
b. {dwd | d ∈ Σ and w ∈ Σ∗ }.
c. {uaav | u, v ∈ Σ∗ }.
d. {uavbw | u, v, w ∈ Σ∗ }.
e. Σ∗ .
f. Σ∗ { }.
g. { }.
h. ∅.
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