provide detailed answer for all questions, indicated what theory behind the question. all calculatioin steps must be showed clearly, explanations with proper knowladge about nuclear and radiochemistry.Question 19
37 6 pts
Co-60 has two gamma rays: 1333 keV and 1173 kev.
Suppose a well-collimated beam of a Co-60 source is
emitting the higher energy photon at 0.50 Ci and the
lower at 0.30 Ci. Assume that u/p is 0.060 cm²/g in lead
for both of these gamma rays, and the density of lead is
11.34 g/cm3. Give 2 significant figures in your answers to
this question.
a) What is the dose rate at a distance of 5 meters in J/s?
b) What is the dose rate at the same distance with 5 cm
of lead shielding in J/s?
Question 15
2 / 4 pts
U-238 and Th-232 are both common isotopes in the
Earth’s crust; however, neither are fissile nuclear fuel.
They are however both fertile isotopes. Write nuclear
reaction and decay equations showing how U-238 can be
converted into a fissile isotope in a nuclear reactor.
Question 10
0 / 4 pts
Describe how the radiotoxicity of nuclear waste changes
over time.
Your Answer:
the radiotoxicity will decrease at a constant speed fora
period of time,after 100000 years it will close to uranium
Question 6
0/2 pts
In the fuel cycle currently employed in the USA, mined
uranium is converted to a gas (UF6), yet current reactor
fuels are always solids. Explain briefly but carefully, why
this conversion to gas is necessary.
nswered Question 4
0 / 4 pts
Calculate the binding energy per nucleon in MeV/A for a
232Th nucleus if the atomic mass excess is 0.03851 u.

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