Instructions: Post 2 replies of at least 250 words. Each reply must incorporate at least 1 scholarly citation in APA format. Each reply should include integration of Biblical Worldview with supporting scripture. Any sources cited must have been published within the last five years. Acceptable sources include the textbook, the Bible, peer- reviewed journal articles.

Classmate 1: Commonalities in Unethical Practices

The Havasupai, American Indians, and less developed countries all shared similar treatment throughout the articles. The major commonality is that all three groups were vulnerable populations who were taken advantage of. This is a highly unethical practice in biomedical research. Researchers may assume that vulnerable populations are easy targets because of low socioeconomic status, education level, or lack of medical care. Another commonality is that ethical codes were twisted to create outcomes that researchers wanted. For example, researchers were dishonest with all subjects regarding the risk to benefit ratio, and the data being collected. All three studies also showed that research has consequences that can impact large groups of people for generations.

Violated Ethical Principles

Safe and quality care was not given to the patients in the in any of these three examples. The Code of Ethics for nurses states to do no harm (nonmaleficence). The ethical dilemmas came when patient rights were violated in the name of biomedical research. Factors such as neglecting informed consent and withholding treatment for research purposes provided ethical issues. Vulnerable populations were also impacted and not taken into consideration. For example, in the Tuskegee study, African American sharecroppers were chosen to be studied. The men were mostly illiterate, and also already sick with Syphilis, making participants more vulnerable. Participants were promised benefits promised such as free medical care, free transportation to the clinic, free meals, and free burial insurance (CDC, 2020). Although light was shed on these issues in the Tuskegee study, research on American Indians led to the same damage. Risks outweighed the benefits for American Indians who were subject to being studied for years.

Lessons Learned

One major lesson learned is that vulnerable populations need to be protected, regarding both health and legal rights. Another lesson learned is that subjects should be able to ask questions and receive honest answers. In the research community, several concerns could be addressed through these ethical issues. One concern is that although a small group of subjects may be studied, snowball effects can be seen in subjects’ families and communities for years to come. Negative health outcomes are another lesson to be learned for both subjects and their families.

Suggested Guidance, Practices or Policies

Policies should be continuously created and enforced to ensure that subject rights are not being violated. Vulnerable populations shoul

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