Hello. I’ll upload for you lab reports. Basically you need to full the questions in the report worksheets with the right and full answer pleas. if the question ask to show the work for it. other wise I’ll receive no credit for it. after that upload it with it’s name.Lap 1 : Water of hydration. Lab 2 : Chemical Reaction. Lab 3 : Mole – Mole Stoichiometry. Lab 4 : Heat to Heat capacity. Send it as PDF files. Each one by its self.- I will attach for you the files. also pleas I’m expecting full and right answer for each question. 3 days are more than enough their are few question In each and pretty simple. Also I’ll send you the videos that the professor gave it will help you.WATER OF HYDRATION
INTRODUCTION
Many solid compounds contain molecular water as an integral part of their structure. In such
cases, the compound is said to be hydrated and the water is termed water of hydration and is distinct
from the water which is often present on the surface of a compound due to its exposure to the
atmosphere. The water of hydration will be present in stoichiometric amounts (the amount present
will be fixed and constant for a given chemical compound). It is often possible to remove the water
by the application of heat, and this process is termed dehydration. In this experiment you will be
dehydrating hydrated copper(II) sulfate, CuSO4(H2O)n – also written CuSO4⋅nH2O by heat. By
carefully weighing the compound before and after the heating it is possible to determine the precise
weight of the water lost. A fundamental characteristic of any chemical compound is its mass percent
composition. Stoichiometric hydrates will have a specific and fixed mass percent of water. Since
you will know both the total weight of the compound and the amount of water it contained, you will
be able to determine the weight percent of water in the hydrate. In addition, given the data you will
have collected, it is also possible to determine how many water molecules are present per CuSO4 unit,
i.e., “n” in the formula given above. The procedure for this calculation is given in the Calculations
section of the experiment.
SAFETY
Be especially careful when using the Bunsen burner and handling hot equipment. Remember that
most items look exactly the same whether they are hot or cold. Heat the BaCl2⋅ nH2O sample slowly
to avoid any splattering.
Hazard Summary at a Glance
Danger:
Toxic if swallowed
Harmful if inhaled
May cause drowsiness or
dizziness May cause damage to
organs through prolonged or
repeated exposure
copper(II) sulfate hydrate,
CuSO4(H2O)n
41
PROCEDURE
Step 1. Strongly heat one, clean, dry crucible and cover for one
to two minutes to drive off any adsorbed moisture. From this
point on, handle the crucible and covers with tongs only.
Step 2. Allow the crucible and cover to cool and then weigh each
crucible with its cover to the nearest 0.001 g.
CAUTION: The burner
flame is hot. Do not touch it!
Handle the burner by the
bottom. Do not hold it by the
barrel.
Step 3. Place your CuSO4⋅nH2O sample in the crucible and weigh it with its cover.
Step 4. Place the crucible partially uncovered on a triangle supported on a ring stand. The
partially uncovered crucible allows water vapor to escape.
Step 5. Heat the sample very gently, especially for the first few minutes, to prevent spattering.
Step 6. After the sample is dry enough so spattering is unlikely (about 5 minutes), heat the
crucible strongly for about 15 minutes more.
Step 7. Cover the crucible completely with its lid and allow it to cool for 10 minutes.
Step 8. Using the same balance as in Step 2, weigh the crucible and its contents.
Step 9. Reheat the crucible strongly as before, with the cover partially off.
Step 10. Cover completely, let it cool, and reweigh it on the same balance.
Step 11. When dehydration is complete, successive weighing for the same sample will be
very close to one another. Repeat the heating, cooling, and weighing sequence until
successive weighing for the same sample are within 0.003 grams. At this point,
dehydration is complete.
42
Step 12. Make certain all the data is properly recorded in your laboratory notebook.
WASTE DISPOSAL/ CLEAN UP
Place CuSO4 in the crucible in a waste container labeled “copper (II) sulfate waste”
Thoroughly clean the crucible and cover with alconox, rinse with tap water and DI water.
Return it to the box at the front of the lab.
CALCULATIONS
Your data allows you to determine the mass of water lost, since it is assumed that the initial
weight corresponds to the compound CuSO4⋅nH2O, and that the weight after dehydration represents
the compound, CuSO4.
Using the data for each crucible, calculate the following:
1.Weight of CuSO4⋅nH2O
2.Weight of CuSO4
3.Weight of H2O
4 The weight % of H2O in the hydrate.
5. Value of “n”
4. use the equation:
% H2O =
weight of H2O
Weight of CuSO4⋅nH2O
x100%
5. The calculation of “n” is a bit more complex. Follow the steps below.
A=
weight of H 2 O
18.0
B = weight of CuSO4
159.6
n=
A
B
Round “n” off to either the nearest integer or half-integer.
43
(2)
Name:
Mole Ratios and Reaction Stoichiometry
Reaction A: Sodium Bicarbonate and Hydrochloric Acid
Experimental Data
(a) Mass of evaporating dish + watch glass
(b) Mass of evaporating dish + watch glass + sodium bicarbonate
(c) Mass of sodium bicarbonate used
(d) Mass of evaporating dish + watch glass + sodium chloride
(e) Mass of sodium chloride collected (experimental yield)
Data Analysis
1) Use your data to determine the experimental mole-to-mole ratio between sodium bicarbonate and sodium
chloride. Show your work for each step.

Convert the mass of sodium bicarbonate used to moles.

Convert the mass of sodium chloride collected to moles.

Divide both of your results from the preceding two steps by the lower mole value to determine the simplest
mole-to-mole ratio between sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride.
Simplest mole ratio before rounding
moles NaHCO3 :
moles NaCl
Simplest whole number mole ratio after rounding
moles NaHCO3 :
moles NaCl
© Santa Monica College, Physical Sciences Department
Page 1 of 3
2) Determine your percent yield of sodium chloride in reaction A. Show your work for each step.

Write the balanced equation for reaction A – the reaction between sodium bicarbonate and hydrochloric acid.

Using mass-to-mass stoichiometry, calculate the theoretical yield of NaCl for reaction A. Use your initial
mass of sodium bicarbonate reactant as a starting point, along with the relevant mole ratio from the balanced
equation to perform this calculation.

Calculate your percent yield of sodium chloride product.
Reaction B: Sodium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid
Experimental Data
(a) Mass of evaporating dish + watch glass
(b) Mass of evaporating dish + watch glass + sodium carbonate
(c) Mass of sodium carbonate used
(d) Mass of evaporating dish + watch glass + sodium chloride
(e) Mass of sodium chloride collected (experimental yield)
Data Analysis
1) Use your data to determine the experimental mole-to-mole ratio between sodium carbonate and sodium
chloride. Show your work for each step.

Convert the mass of sodium carbonate used to moles.

Convert the mass of sodium chloride collected to moles.
© Santa Monica College, Physical Sciences Department
Page 2 of 3

Divide both of your results from the preceding two steps by the lower mole value to determine the simplest
mole-to-mole ratio between sodium carbonate and sodium chloride.
Simplest mole ratio before rounding
moles Na2CO3 :
moles NaCl
Simplest whole number mole ratio after rounding
moles Na2CO3 :
moles NaCl
2) Determine your percent yield of sodium chloride in reaction B. Show your work for each step.

Write the balanced equation for reaction B – the reaction between sodium carbonate and hydrochloric acid.

Using mass-to-mass stoichiometry, calculate the theoretical yield of NaCl for reaction B. Use your initial
mass of sodium carbonate reactant as a starting point, along with the relevant mole ratio from the balanced
equation to perform this calculation.

Calculate your percent yield of sodium chloride product.
3) Is your percent yield here for reaction B greater than or less than 100%? Give one possible source of error
that could explain the percent yield you obtained.
© Santa Monica College, Physical Sciences Department
Page 3 of 3
Chem. 108 -07 Lab.
Chemical Reactions
Watch the following video: https://youtu.be/7bPlGEUZ2B0
Write summary of the experiment you observed and complete the following worksheet
Name: _________________________________
CHE 108 section ________________
Lab Patner: _____________________________
Experiment date:_________________
Introduction to Chemical Reactions
For each of the reactions performed, — predict the reaction type (combination, decomposition,
combustion, single or double displacement)
— record your observations : Your observation includes color and physical state. Physical state: solid (s) or
precipitate (ppt) : a solid insoluble in water,
g : gas
and l : liquid
— write the balanced “molecular” equation, including all physical
states.
1
1: Zinc metal + hydrochloric acid
Reaction type:
Observations:
Balanced equation:
2: Copper metal + aqueous silver nitrate
Reaction type
Observations:
Balanced Equation:
3: Aqueous iron(III) chloride + aqueous ammonium hydroxide
Reaction type
Observations:
Balanced Equation:
2
4: Solid sodium bicarbonate + acetic acid
Reaction type
Observations:
Balanced Equation:
5: aqueous magnesium sulfate + aqueous sodium carbonate
Reaction type
Observations:
Balanced Equation:
6: aqueous lead(II) nitrate + aqueous potassium iodide
Reaction type
Observations:
Balanced Equation:
7 magnesium + oxygen
Reaction type
Observations:
Balanced Equation:
3
8: magnesium oxide + water
Reaction type
Observations:
Balanced Equation:
9: Aqueous sodium chloride + aqueous potassium nitrate
Reaction type
Observations:
Balanced Equation:
4
Questions
Consider reactions 3, 6 and 9 studied in this lab. Write the balanced molecular equation (identical to what
you completed in the previous section), the complete ionic equation and the net ionic equation for these
reactions. Include all physical states, and circle the spectator ions in the complete ionic equations.
Reaction 3: Aqueous iron(III) chloride + aqueous ammonium hydroxide
Balanced Molecular Equation (from page 1):
Complete Ionic Equation:
Net Ionic Equation:
Reaction 6: aqueous lead(II) nitrate + aqueous potassium iodide
Balanced Molecular Equation (from page 2):
Complete Ionic Equation:
Net Ionic Equation:
Reaction 9: Aqueous sodium chloride + aqueous potassium nitrate
Balanced Molecular Equation (from page 3):
Complete Ionic Equation:
Net Ionic Equation:
5
Temperature, Heat and Specific Heat
Watch the video:
https://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=specific+heat+of+unknown+metal+vedio&&view=detail&mid=
BEC3FB60C62C5AE0C8FBBEC3FB60C62C5AE0C8FB&&FORM=VRDGAR&ru=%2Fvideos%2Fsearch%3Fq%
3Dspecific%2Bheat%2Bof%2Bunknown%2Bmetal%2Bvedio%26%26FORM%3DVDVVXX
Record your observations and perform calculations.
Data
mass
C(J/goC)
Initial temperature (oC)
Final temperature(oC)
T
Aluminum
water
?
4.184
CALCULATIONS
Do the following with your experimental data.
1
calculate the amount of heat absorbed by the water.
2
the amount of heat given up by the aluminum block.
3
Calculate the amount of heat released per gram of aluminum
4
Calculate the specific heats of aluminum
RESULT and DISCUSSION
QUESTIONS
1. If you have 500 g of water at 25oC and wish to heat it to 74oC, how much heat is required?
2. What is the specific heat of water?
3. If you have 11.0 g of lead and wish to increase its temperature by 27.0oC, how much heat will have to
be added to the lead? (The specific heat of lead is 0.0300 calg-1oC-1.)
4. A piece of a metal weighing 140 g is initially at 23.0oC and then absorbs 585 cal of heat. The metal has
a specific heat of 0.0200 calg-1oC-1. What is the final temperature of the metal piece? Assume that
all the heat goes to heating the metal.

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