Which of the following has contributed to the rise of deindustrialization?Select one:a. the localization of laborb. the mechanization of laborc. the strengthening of labor lawsd. the practice of affirmative actionWhich of the following statements is FALSE?Select one:a. Dictators typically seize power.b. Monarchs typically inherit power.c. Dictators typically inherit power.d. Oligarchs typically share power with select individuals.What is the best way to distinguish rational-legal authority from traditional authority?Select one:a. whether power is vested in the office or the person who occupies the officeb. whether the leader is duly elected or seizes power through forcec. whether the person gains control through the devotion of followers or by electiond. whether the leader is beholden to a system or notPerceiving the orders of one’s superiors to be legitimate because “this is how things have always been done” would be an example of a political system based onSelect one:a. egalitarian authority.b. charismatic authority.c. traditional authority.d. rational-legal authority.Mary opens up a small printing business in her town. Although she enjoys the work, her primary motive for opening this business is to earn more money to help support her family. This would be characteristic of which type of economic system?Select one:a. capitalismb. communismc. socialismd. None of the answer choices are correct.A sociology instructor decides what subject matter will be covered each time the class meets. The fact that the instructor can make these decisions and that the students must follow her lead is an example ofSelect one:a. education.b. power.c. experience.d. force.The social institution dedicated to the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services is theSelect one:a. economy.b. government.c. stock market.d. workforce.The systematic, widespread reduction of investment in domestic manufacturing and material production is known asSelect one:a. downsizing.b. microeconomics.c. deindustrialization.d. modernization.The pluralist model of power relations is a view of society in whichSelect one:a. a small group of individuals who share common political and economic interests take charge.b. many competing groups within the community have access to government so that no single group is dominant.c. Both answer choices are correct.d. Neither answer choice is correct.Which of the following terms refers to power that is recognized as legitimate by the people over whom it is exercised?Select one:a. influenceb. authorityc. legitimacyd. political efficacyOffshoring is a type ofSelect one:a. national betrayal.b. affirmative action.c. outsourcing.d. illegal money transfer.Which of the following countries has seen the highest percentage of GDP growth since 1980?Select one:a. United Statesb. Chinac. Indiad. JapanUnder rational-legal authority, rules and regulations tend to expand, leading to concerns aboutSelect one:a. inefficiencies.b. dehumanization.c. dysfunction.d. All of the answer choices are correct.A decline in political participation allows governments toSelect one:a. become dictatorships ruling by force.b. be held to higher standards by society.c. operate with less accountability to society.d. become more efficient at governing.Which of the following defines Medicare?Select one:a. a compulsory health insurance plan for the elderlyb. a noncontributory federal and state insurance plan for the poorc. an insurance plan for all Americansd. All of the answer choices are correct.Under the leadership of the American Medical Association in the mid-1800s, “regular” doctors marginalized which groups?Select one:a. lay practitionersb. sectarian doctorsc. female physiciansd. All of the answer choices are correct.Poor areas around the world tend to be underserved in terms of health care in part becauseSelect one:a. people in poor nations prefer to treat their ill at home.b. residents in poor countries have little need for medical treatment.c. most health care professionals return to these areas after college abroad.d. health care professionals move to industrial nations as part of brain drain.Practitioners of holistic medicine in the United StatesSelect one:a. always function within the traditional health care system.b. use treatments like massage, chiropractic medicine, and acupuncture.c. fully reject the traditional health care system as being harmful.d. are excluded from national funding for biomedical research.Polio is a disease that was almost eradicated, but there are still new cases that appear due to the failure to immunize all children. Researchers keep close tabs on how many new cases of this disease occur each year in the hope that it will soon cease to exist. This enumeration is an example ofSelect one:a. prevalence.b. incidence.c. frequency.d. duration.Physicians have enhanced their power and prestige bySelect one:a. greatly expanding its domain of expertise.b. retaining absolute jurisdiction over many health care procedures.c. labeling certain practitioners as outside the realm of acceptable medicine.d. All of the answer choices are correct.Which of the following BEST defines morbidity rates?Select one:a. the incidence of disease in a given populationb. the number of new cases of a specific disorder that occur during a stated periodc. incidence of death in a given populationd. None of the answer choices are correct.Which of the following was formerly classified as a mental illness by the medical community?Select one:a. premenstrual syndromeb. hyperactivityc. homosexualityd. All of the answer choices are correct.Which of the following is TRUE concerning labeling?Select one:a. A label, such as “HIV positive,” can overshadow all other aspects of a person’s life.b. The power to label and the power to oppress sometimes go hand in hand.c. Labeling a life experience as a disorder can change the way we see that experience.d. All of the answer choices are correct.The legal strategy based on claims that racial minorities are subjected disproportionately to environmental hazards is referred to asSelect one:a. environmental racism.b. environmental justice.c. environmental prejudice.d. civil rights.The people of which nation are least convinced that climate change represents a “major threat” to their country?Select one:a. Brazilb. The United Statesc. Nigeriad. RussiaScientific evidence for global climate change isSelect one:a. unclear and biased.b. skewed and murky.c. clear and consistent.d. inconsistent and unreliable.What was the Kyoto Protocol intended to do?Select one:a. Provide a multinational response that would collectively reduce global emissions of greenhouse gases.b. Provide a multinational response that would collectively reduce global water pollution.c. Provide a multinational response that would collectively reduce global population growth.d. All of the answer choices are correct.In applying the human ecological perspective, sociologists and environmentalists have identified which of the following relationships between the environment and people?Select one:a. The environment provides the resources essential for life.b. The environment serves as a waste repository.c. The environment “houses” our species.d. All of the answer choices are correct.People in industrialized nations have insisted that developing nations change their practices to save the planet. This is an example ofSelect one:a. dependency theory.b. neocolonialism.c. ethnocentrism.d. globalization.Which of the following are possible explanations for the finding that racial and ethnic minorities make up a large percentage of the people living near dangerous sites?Select one:a. Racial and ethnic minorities possess less political power than others and cannot prevent toxic sites from being located in their backyards.b. Racial and ethnic minorities settle near the sites after they are constructed, because economics and forces of discrimination push them into less desirable living areas.c. Both explanations are possible.d. Neither of the explanations is possible.Which of the following threatens the quality of water supplies on a daily basis for more than 2 billion people?Select one:a. the lack of sanitation facilitiesb. oil tanker spillsc. radiation contaminationd. None of the answer choices are correct.Sociology can help improve society bySelect one:a. diminishing our reliance on individualistic models.b. helping us to view the world from a variety of perspectives.c. encouraging discussion that can lead to a better future.d. All of the answer choices are correct.The writing of Auguste Comte is an example ofSelect one:a. world systems theory.b. social evolution theory.c. conflict theory.d. modernization theory.The writing of Auguste Comte is an example ofSelect one:a. world systems theory.b. social evolution theory.c. conflict theory.d. modernization theory.The ways we establish, abide by, and enforce principles of conduct compriseSelect one:a. normative culture.b. material culture.c. cognitive culture.d. None of the answer choices are correct.Neil Postman argues that we shouldSelect one:a. critically examine new technology before adopting it.b. passively adopt new technology whenever it is presented.c. allow technology to shape the system in which we live.d. avoid adopting all new technology.Which of the following is TRUE about groups such as the Luddites?Select one:a. They resist all forms of technology as being immoral.b. Their opposition to technology is completely irrational and a result of false fears.c. They resist technology’s ability to undercut familiar norms and values.d. All of the answer choices are correct.Shifts in the way humans think and act within society that alter material, cognitive, and normative culture is calledSelect one:a. social change.b. social movements.c. social evolution.d. progress.Talcott Parsons contends that societies experience value _____, the development of new values that legitimate a broader range of activities.Select one:a. differentiationb. adaptationc. inclusiond. generalizationWhich term refers to the conscious feeling of a negative discrepancy between legitimate expectations and present actualities?Select one:a. relative deprivationb. relative scarcityc. resource deprivationd. resource scarcityThe vast majority of Americans feel that cloning a humanSelect one:a. will be a great accomplishment.b. is highly ethical.c. is morally wrong.d. will always be impossible.Recognizing the impact our individual position has on who we are and how we think and act, and taking responsibility for the impacts our actions have on others is known asSelect one:a. practical sociology.b. public sociology.c. personal sociology.d. applied sociology.If we only expose ourselves, through social media or other interaction, to like-minded people, what may happen?Select one:a. We may find ourselves in an echo chamber, cut off from diverse opinions and information.b. We will likely develop a more focused, sophisticated understanding of the “why” behind our beliefs.c. We may be able to see limitations or holes in the plans and programs we propose.d. All of the answer choices are correct.Which of the following is NOT an example of dramatic recent social change?Select one:a. the collapse of communismb. the computer revolutionc. the development of nuclear weaponsd. All of these are examples of dramatic recent social change.The expectation that African and Latin American countries will become more complex, as Western societies have, is consistent withSelect one:a. disengagement theory.b. social evolution theory.c. world systems theory.d. resource mobilization theory.The role of women in the family has changed dramatically in the United States during the last 50 years. Women have furthered their education and developed careers. This change in the family has necessitated adaptive changes in school systems, corporations, churches, and other facets of society to provide child care services. This situation reflects which view of social change?Select one:a. the social evolution modelb. the equilibrium modelc. the progressive modeld. the conflict modelAfter the 1999 Columbine school shootings, the community used the slogan “We are Columbine” in an era before hashtags. That slogan is illustrative of which of James Jasper’s three categories of moral emotions?Select one:a. prideb. compassionc. justiced. All of the answer choices are correct.People needing to have their cars repaired can go to a muffler store, a transmission shop, a tire retailer, or a gas station for a tune-up. Talcott Parsons refers to this type of specialization asSelect one:a. expansion.b. incorporation.c. diffusion.d. adaptive upgrading.Recently, medical schools have practiced ______ by admitting increasing numbers of women and African Americans.Select one:a. differentiationb. adaptationc. inclusiond. value generalization
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