Hello,Find attach the paper that I need you to full the five question with answers pleas provide good quality work full and correct answers.Assignment #3
● The purpose of BIO 122 homework assignments is to give you the opportunity to
think deeply and critically about the information covered in lecture recordings.
The questions below will assess your understanding of course material and
provide you with the opportunity to practice answering quiz and exam-like
questions in a low-stakes situation that is not timed.
● This assignment will cover information from the “Speciation and classification”
and “Systematics and tree thinking” lecture recordings. After watching the
appropriate lecture recordings, please read through the questions below carefully
and provide complete answers to all questions.
● It’s ok to use outside resources and consult with your classmates, but be sure to
put your final answers into your own words (plagiarism and copying of any kind
will result in a score of 0).
● This assignment is due via the appropriate link on BlackBoard no later than
11:59pm on February 12. Please write your answers in a different color, font, or in
bold so they are easily differentiated from the question prompts.
1. (4 pts) a) Based on the image below, at what level of classification are cats and
dogs related?
b) To what phylum do both fishes and jackals belong?
2. (2 pts) In your own words, how is the passage of time represented on a
phylogenetic tree?
3. (3 pts) Bats and insects both have wings. Is this shared feature more likely a
homologous or analogous trait? Be sure to briefly explain your answer.
4. (4 pts) The American black bear is native to North America. Complete the
classification chart below using proper formatting (hint: make sure you’re using
capitalization and italics properly for each level of organization!)
Classification level
Common name
American black bear
5. (2 pts) In your own words, briefly explain the two different modes of speciation
we have discussed in BIO 122. In your answer, be sure to identify which of the
two modes of speciation is most common.
Systematics & Tree Thinking
● Quiz #2, assignment #3, and extra credit check-in
assignment are all due 11:59pm on Friday February 12
● You have an exam next week!
Bridge from last time
What makes Linnaean classification special?
Why is it important to classify life?
→ phylogenetic systematics
Learning goals for today
1. Understand how organisms are grouped and organized into
phylogenies that reflect shared evolutionary history
2. Apply basic terminology from phylogenetic systematics in
order to interpret information on a phylogenetic tree
What is phylogenetic systematics?
Phylogenetics is the study of evolutionary relationships
Systematics is the study of diversification & classification of life
Based on the aforementioned definitions, what do you bet
phylogenetic systematics entails?
Ideally, we organize life onto a phylogeny
Phylogeny of the family Hominidae
Pongo abelii
Pongo pygmaeus
Gorilla beringei
Gorilla gorilla
Pan verus
Pan ellioti
Pan schweinfurthii
Pan troglodytes
Pan paniscus
Homo sapiens
Millions of years ago
From Cagan et al., 2016
Phylogeny of the non-avian reptiles
From Lind et al., 2019
Phylogeny of the non-avian reptiles
(length = amount of evolution)
(common ancestor
of EVERYTHING on tree)
(common ancestor
of a clade)
(typically species)
Phylogeny of the non-avian reptiles
Clade = group of organisms
Phylogeny of the non-avian reptiles
Let’s quiz ourselves
1. What letter represents the
common ancestor of A & B?
2. What letter in the phylogeny
denotes the closest relative of E
(what letter is E’s sister
3. Identify at least two
monophyletic clades in this
Let’s quiz ourselves
1. What letter represents the
common ancestor of A & B?
2. What letter in the phylogeny
denotes the closest relative of E
(what letter is E’s sister
3. Identify at least two
monophyletic clades in this
How does one build a phylogeny?
1. Choose your data (DNA, anatomy, combo, other)
2. Choose your method of phylogenetic reconstruction
a. Parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian
3. Build the tree (using a powerful computer!)
a. Your chosen algorithm will organize organisms
into groups based on shared derived traits
Let’s work through an example
Let’s work through an example
Let’s work through an example
Let’s work through an example
Quick review of today’s learning objectives
1. Definition of the field
2. How to interpret phylogenies (applied terminology)
3. How to build phylogenies (using simple anatomical
data + parsimony)
Next time
● A review of module 1 in preparation of Exam 1
○ Reminder, I don’t provide study guides!
○ Hint: Make your own!!
● Exam 1 will cover: Intro to the study of biodiversity →
Systematics and tree thinking lectures (course
content from the first three weeks of class)
Speciation and Classification
● Quiz #2, assignment #3, and extra credit check-in
assignment are all due 11:59pm on Friday February 12
● You have an exam next week!
○ Review of module 1 is posted – use that to study and
gather your notes
○ Come up with an exam-taking game plan
○ Reach out with any questions or concerns!
Bridge from last week
We know that natural selection is the key mechanism by which
evolution happens…
What is evolution?
…So how does evolution by natural selection (or other means)
actually lead to the biodiversity that exists on planet Earth?
Learning objectives for today:
1. Explain the different types of speciation
2. Understand Linnaean classification
a. Nested hierarchies and binomial nomenclature
The evolutionary process by which populations evolve
and become distinct species
There are many different (and viable!) definitions of what a
species is.
For the purposes of this class, we will use the biological species
concept definition:
The biological species concept defines a
species as members of populations that
actually or potentially interbreed in nature
Speciation: Allopatric
Populations of the same species become isolated due to
geographical changes
Speciation: Sympatric
Reproduction among populations of the same species living in the
same area is reduced, eventually leading to speciation
Reproductive isolation can occur
due to prezygotic and/or postzygotic
barriers randomly forming within a
population due to natural variability
within a population
Prezygotic isolation
Flesh flies reproduce sexually
(or at least try to!)
Prezygotic isolation can occur when
mating is no longer feasible (e.g. shifts in
behavior, anatomy genetics, geographic
From Sharma et al., 2017
Postzygotic isolation
Male donkey + female horse = mule
Copulation, fertilization, development = ok!
But horses and donkeys have different # of chromosomes
–> mules are NOT capable of reproducing
We know that speciation → biodiversity on our planet
How the heck can we keep track of all these species!?
Binomial nomenclature
Linnaean system of classification
Linnaean classification of life
What is it?
A nested, rank-based system of biological classification
Linnaean classification of life
Google Earth demonstration
City, County, State, Country, Continent, Planet, Solar system,
The city of Ojai is a part of Ventura County, which is located in
the state of California, which is in the United States, located in
North America, on planet Earth, which is part of our Sun’s
solar system, which is a small part of the Milky Way Galaxy
Ojai is a small part of EVERYTHING that is larger than it
Linnaean classification of life
Linnaean classification of life
Common name: hippopotamus
Latin name = Genus species (binomial nomenclature): Hippopotamus amphibius
Linnaean classification of life
Eukarya Kingdom:
Kingdom Phylum:
Chordata Class:
H. amphibius
Next time:
Systematics and tree thinking
How do we organize the diversity of
life as we know it!?

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