General Instructions For each Assignment: 1.Include an APA title block with your name, class title, date, and the assignment number. Include a table of contents and a reference section. Number your pages in the footer along with the date. Include a header starting on page 2 with the Course and assignment number.Write the problem number and the problem title as a level one heading (Example ‐ A.1.1: Chapter 2, Problem 2.1, Check the Completed Questionnaires) and then provide yourresponse.Use level two headings with short titles for multi part questions (Example ‐ A1.1.a, Short Title, A1.1.b, Short Title II, etc.)Use appropriate level headings for key elements of your discussion such as Research Questions, Hypotheses, Descriptive Statistics, Assumptions & Conditions, Interpretation, Results, and others. Your goal is to make your analysis easy to follow and logical.Ensure that all tables and graphs are legible and include a figure number.Carefully review your document prior to submission for formatting, flow, and readability. Keep in mind that running the statistical tests is only the first half of the challenge; you must be able to clearly communicate your findings to the reader! Assignment 5 A5.1: Chapter 8, Problem 8.1, Chi‐Square and Phi (Or Cramer’s V). Write a short narrative of your process, an interpretation of your findings, and write your results to include tables. Cut and paste the Case Processing Summary, Crosstabulation, Chi‐Square Tests, and Symetric Measures tables directly into your document and refer to them in your interpretation. A5.2: Chapter 8, Problem 8.2, Risk Ratios and Odds Ratios. Write a short narrative of your process, an interpretation of your findings, and write your results. Cut and paste the Case Processing Summary, Crosstabulation, and Risk Estimate tables directly into your document and refer to them in your interpretation. A5.3: Chapter 8, Problem 8.3, Other Nonparametric Associational Statistics. Write a short narrative of your process, an interpretation of your findings, and write your results. Cut and paste the Case Processing Summary, Crosstabulation, and Symetric Measures tables directly into your document and refer to them in your interpretation. A5.4: Chapter 8, Problem 8.4, Cross‐Tabulation and Eta. Write a short narrative of your process, an interpretation of your findings, and write your results to include tables. Cut and paste the Case Processing Summary, Crosstabulation, and Directional Measures tables directly into your document and refer to them in your interpretation. A5.5, Application Problem ‐ Crosstabulation and Chi‐Square. Using the “college student data.sav” and “hsbdata.sav” files, do the following problems. Write a short narrative of your process, an interpretation of your findings, and write your results. Cut and paste your outputs directly into your document and refer to them in your interpretation. A5.5a. Write two research questions and two null hypotheses relating to the following pairs of data, run crosstabs and interpret the results of chi‐square and phi (or Cramer’s V), as discussed in Chapter 6 and in the interpretation of Output 8.1 for the following data pairs: 1) “gender” and “marital status” and 2) “age group” and “marital status”. Before beginning the test, recode marital status to BinaryMarital where Single and Divorced (1 & 3) are listed as Single (1) and Married (2) is listed as Married (2). Include Case Processing Summary, Crosstabulation, Chi‐Square Tests, and Symetric Measures tables and refer to them in your interpretation. Include a discussion of relevant differences or similarities. Prior to running the analysis, discuss how the data meets the assumptions and conditions for the tests you are going to conduct. Support your assertion with the appropriate descriptive statistics. A5.5b. Write two research questions and two null hypotheses relating to the following pairs of data, run crosstabs and interpret the results of chi‐square and phi (or Cramer’s V), as discussed in Chapter 6 and in the interpretation of Output 8.1 for the following data pairs: 1) “mathach” and “calc” and 2) “mathach” and “trig”. Before beginning the test, recode math achievement into two groups HighAch and LowAch using the median score as the dividing point. Include Case Processing Summary, Crosstabulation, Chi‐Square Tests, and Symetric Measures tables and refer to them in your interpretation. Include a discussion of relevant differences or similarities. Prior to running the analysis, discuss how the data meets the assumptions and conditions for the tests you are going to conduct. Support your assertion with the appropriate descriptive statistics. SPSS GradPack (Standard) 25 6 Months LATEST Author: Liberty University ISBN-13: ISBN-10: Edition/Copyright: LATEST Publisher: Kivuto Solutions, Inc. (cc) Returns: Non-returnable once opened IBM SPSS for Introductory Statistics 5TH 13 EBBOK ISBN-13: 9781848729827 Authors: George A MorganNancy L LeechGene W GloecknerKaren C BarrettRunning Head: OUTPUTS AND METHODS

1

-Quantitative Research Methods

Assignment 5

Table of Contents

A5:1 Chapter 8. Problem 8.1 …………………………………………………………………………………………..3

Output ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….3

Method ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

Crosstabs …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..4

A5:2 Chapter 8. Problem 8.2 …………………………………………………………………………………………..3

2

OUTPUTS AND METHODS

Output ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….3

Method ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

Crosstabs …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..4

Type chapter title (level 2) ……………………………………………………………………………………………..5

Type chapter title (level 3) …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6

A5:3 Chapter 8. Problem 8.3 …………………………………………………………………………………………..3

Output ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….3

Method ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

Crosstabs …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..4

Type chapter title (level 2) ……………………………………………………………………………………………..5

Type chapter title (level 3) …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6

A5:4 Chapter 8. Problem 8.4 …………………………………………………………………………………………..3

Output ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….3

Method ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

Crosstabs …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..4

A5:5 Chapter Application Problem …………………………………………………………………………………3

Output ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….3

Method ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

Crosstabs …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..4

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6

A5:1 Chapter 8. Problem 8.1 …………………………………………………………………………………………..3

Output ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….3

Method ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

Crosstabs …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..4

Type chapter title (level 2) ……………………………………………………………………………………………..5

Type chapter title (level 3) …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6

A5:1 Chapter 8. Problem 8.1 …………………………………………………………………………………………..3

Output ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….3

Outputs and methods

8.1

Output

3

OUTPUTS AND METHODS

Fisher’s exact test is well known for making one likely to make different interpretations

depending on the number of columns that one may want. For the one-tailed column, it is only

used when one had made a prior prediction regarding the events that would occur. In an instance

where one may want to learn about the difference in the results that males and females may

experience in relation to their grades, the use of chi-square statistic may be necessary. In the

presented case, the assessment of all the made assumptions made it easy for determining the

effectiveness of the results. From the results, males are not expected to have high or low grades

in math as compared to females.

Method

From the presented data, it is worth noting that the participants had all the data included.

The cross-tabulation table has the expected counts as well as counts. It is worth noting that about

20 out of the 41 females who took part had low math grades, which represents 49% of the

females. This case is different from the 24 males who had low math grades. From the assessment

of the chi-square test, one can gain more confidence that the appearance did not occur by chance.

To learn about the statistical relationship that may exist between two nominal variables, the use

of the chi-test is the most appropriate tool that can be considered. Through this, one can use

Fisher’s exact test in order to interpret the results of the test.

Crosstabs

Notes

4

OUTPUTS AND METHODS

Output Created

16-SEP-2020 21:13:48

Comments

Input

Data

C:UsersukacaAppDat

aLocalTempTemp1_2

0200915160222data_s

et_for_all_problems.zip

Data set for all

problemshsbdata.sav

Active Dataset

DataSet3

Filter

Weight

Split File

N of Rows in Working

Data File

Missing Value

Handling

75

Definition of Missing

User-defined missing

values are treated as

missing.

Cases Used

Statistics for each table

are based on all the

cases with valid data in

the specified range(s)

for all variables in each

table.

5

OUTPUTS AND METHODS

Syntax

CROSSTABS

/TABLES=mathgr BY

gender

/FORMAT=AVALUE

TABLES

/STATISTICS=CHISQ

PHI KAPPA

/CELLS=COUNT

EXPECTED COLUMN

/COUNT ROUND

CELL.

Resources

Processor Time

00:00:00.02

Elapsed Time

00:00:00.17

Dimensions Requested

2

Cells Available

524245

Case Processing Summary

Cases

Valid

N

math grades *

gender

Percent

75

100.0%

Missing

N

Total

Percent

0

N

0.0%

75

math grades * gender Crosstabulation

gender

Percent

Total

100.0%

6

OUTPUTS AND METHODS

male

math grades less A-B

Count

24

20

44

19.9

24.1

44.0

70.6%

48.8%

58.7%

10

21

31

14.1

16.9

31.0

29.4%

51.2%

41.3%

34

41

75

34.0

41.0

75.0

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

Expected

Count

% within

gender

most A-B Count

Expected

Count

% within

gender

Total

Count

Expected

Count

% within

gender

female

Chi-Square Tests

Value

Asymptotic

Significance Exact Sig. (2- Exact Sig. (1(2-sided)

sided)

sided)

df

3.645a

1

.056

Continuity Correctionb

2.801

1

.094

Likelihood Ratio

3.699

1

.054

Pearson Chi-Square

Fisher’s Exact Test

Linear-by-Linear

Association

.064

3.597

1

.058

.046

7

OUTPUTS AND METHODS

N of Valid Cases

75

a. 0 cells (0.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 14.05.

b. Computed only for a 2×2 table

Symmetric Measures

Value

Nominal by Nominal Phi

Measure of

Agreement

Asymptotic

Standard

Errora

Approximate

Tb

Approximate

Significance

.220

.056

Cramer’s V

.220

.056

Kappa

.213

N of Valid Cases

.108

1.909

.056

75

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

CROSSTABS

/TABLES=gender BY mathach

8.2

Output

From this study, since binary variables are used in this, the assessment of the odds ratio

was necessary. This was made possible by the fact that taking or not taking algebra two and

whether the recorded grades were high or low were binary variables. The obtained odds ratio was

8

OUTPUTS AND METHODS

2.77, and as a result of the results of this, it is worth noting that students who may not take

algebra 2 have a 2.77 higher percentage of getting lower grades in math as compared to the

learners who took the course. Additional, from this study, there was a 1.07-7.15 confidence in

relation to the expected results.

Method

Evaluating the first two tables, one can notice that there is a notable similarity between

them and the output realized in 8.1 apart for the fact that the variables are different in various

ways. 44 of the students had low recordings in their math grades. Since there are students who

did not take algebra 2, the results show that the students who did not complete Algebra 2 are

more likely to have low math grades as compared to the students who completed this course. The

above is contributed significantly by the fact that both the lower and upper bounds can either be

greater than 1 or less than 1, which means that the application of the risk ration is a practical

approach that has high significance in facilitating the needed results.

8.3

Output

For one to look at the relationship that exists between the education between the mother

and that of the father, the use of Kendall’s tau-b. There was a statistically positive association

between the knowledge of both the father and the mother. From this study, it is worth noting that

there was a tendency in which the highly educated fathers were married to more highly educated

mothers. In addition to this, the less educated fathers were married to less educated mothers. The

use of this tau is directly associated with the large effect size.

Method

9

OUTPUTS AND METHODS

There are several forms that can be used in the assessment of the results associated with a

given correlation. The use of the right non-parametric measure may make it easy for the

collection of the correct data that may be needed in a study. From the various nonparametric

measures, they are necessary for the measurement of the strength of the association that may

exist between variables. In an instance where one may experience a weak association between

the variables, the value of the statistics tends to move close to 0, and then the level of

significance is likely to be more than 0.5. On the other hand, where the association is significant

statistically, the results obtained are a small p (

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