I have research but my Dr. did not like it and she write the below notes : Rephrase paragraphs and subheadingsThe main dimensions of the study are not coveredThe theoretical literature needs developmentI need some one who is professional in writing literature view. I will attach the file i need to rewrite it and follow her notes .Running head: ASSIGNMENT-(I+II )
Impacts of distance educational achievement of students at Riyadh universities
The study introduces and researches on the impacts of distance educational achievement
of students at Riyadh universities. The security and safety concerns, budgetary implications as well
as the employability of students undertaking distance learning have been analyzed in detail in the
research through reviewing of several scholarly articles relating to the topic. The topic was
identified and chosen for the reason; there has been a high prevalence of distance learning in almost
all universities in Saudi Arabia giving opportunities to many people to access university education
without the requirement of physically being at the institutions.
Aims and objectives
The research aims at establishing the impacts of distance educational achievement of
students at Riyadh universities. The objectives of the research will be:

To establish the prevalence of distance learning in Universities in Riyadh

To assess the tangible impacts of distance educational achievements of students.

To identify the constrains and barriers towards distance learning in Riyadh
Research questions:

How prevalent is distance learning in Universities in Riyadh?

What are the tangible impacts of distance educational achievements of students?

What constrains and limitations hinder distance learning in Riyadh?
Prevalence of Distance learning in Saudi Arabia
From the 2nd International Conference on e-learning held in Riyadh in February 2012, the
literacy rate in (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) KSA had increased to 89% following the successful
implementation of e-learning in schools where the use of the internet was advocated in all learning
institutions (Al-Asmari & Khan, 2014). The number of internet users in Saudi Arabia increased
from 7.7 million users in 2008, to 21.6 million in 2015. This is a result of the Saudi government’s
investment in ICT infrastructure as well as the Saudi government expenditure of between a quarter
and a third of its national budget on education annually (Aldiab, Chowdhury, Kootsookos, &
Alam, 2017). According to a report by Arabnews, over 19,000 students had chosen to pursue their
bachelors and masters and degree university programs via distance learning courses at Taibah
University in Madinah (ARABNEWS, 2020).
Impacts of distance learning
Education has been attached a very high value in the modern globalized society with
advanced technologies. As such, education has a very big impact on students’ employability and
their acceptance in the society. The development of distance education has provided a large
number of students with access to educational institutions at university level. Consequently, many
individuals have received university education via distance learning. The use of ICT has enabled
people to pursue education without the need to be at the institution physically. Distance learning
has revolutionized teaching and learning by use of modern technologies with the capabilities of
sending documents, pictures and other forms of information thereby removing time and space
constraints. This has led to an increase in the number of students joining university programs in
many countries. According to Barry Willis, distance education has been cost efficient since
universities have the potential to gain from the economies of scale since distance learning courses
are not limited by classroom size, whereas the costs per student reduce as enrollments increases
(Willis, 1993).
Barriers towards distance learning in Riyadh
One major hindrance to distance learning is the huge start-up cost involved. According to
Giltrov, paying for these costs prior to student’s enrollment is unsettling (Giltrow, 1989). The main
factors contributing to the start-up costs include the type of technology, purchase agreements, and
the existing infrastructure. Operating and maintenance costs are also factors to be considered.
Security and safety concern for distance learning poses a major hindrance due to cases of cyber
bullying and hackings brought about by the dependence on internet. The lack of support and
isolation contributes to the limitations of distance learning. According to Dr. Intakhab, lack of
motivation-focused teaching contributes to major barrier distance learning (Khan, 2011).
Distance learning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has already taken shape with many
students opting to go for the online systems rather than the conventional classroom system. The
benefits of the distance system have already been felt by many, despite the few shortcomings
associated with it. From the research observations, the research questions herein are answered in
combination with the analysis of data collected from secondary sources. A reflection of the current
state of distance learning has been established.
Al-Asmari, A. M., & Khan, M. S. (2014). E-learning in Saudi Arabia:past, present and future.
Aldiab, A., Chowdhury, H., Kootsookos, A., & Alam, F. (2017). Prospect of eLearning in Higher
Education Sectors of Saudi Arabia: A Review. Science Direct.
Al Gamdi, M. A., & Samarji, A. (2016). Perceived barriers towards e-Learning by faculty members
at a recently established university in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Information
and Education Technology, 6(1), 23.
Al-Khalifa, H. S. (2009). The state of distance education in Saudi Arabia. ELearn, 2009(10).
Al Mulhem, A. (2014, March). Common barriers to e-learning implementation in Saudi higher
education sector: A review of literature. In Society for Information Technology & Teacher
Education International Conference (pp. 830-840). Association for the Advancement of
Computing in Education (AACE).
Altowjry, A. (2005). Reforming higher education in Saudi Arabia: The use of telecommunications
ARABNEWS. (2020). Over 19k Saudi students enroll for distance learning. ARABNEWS.
Quadri, N. N., Muhammed, A., Sanober, S., Qureshi, M. R. N., & Shah, A. (2017). Barriers
Universities. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET), 12(06),
Willis, B. (1993). Distance Education: Strategies and Tools and Distance Education: A Practical
Impacts of Distance Educational Achievement of Students at Riyadh Universities
Overview of the Popularity and Use of Distance Learning in Riyadh
Distance learning is becoming popular in Riyadh, but its adoption is always subject to
various challenges. The distance learning programs offered by different universities in the city are
not usually accessible or effective. However, advances have been made by different institutions to
improve their distance learning programs (Aldiab, Chowdhury, Kootsookos, & Alam, 2017). Even
though numerous challenges face distance learning, universities can improve their programs to
cater to their students’ needs and tap a large pool of recruits for the program due to convenience
associated with it.
Key factors that determine whether or not a student adopts distance learning students
include their income levels when they undertake the course, their identity as graduates, and
whether or not they have high employability. In a survey of 268 graduates on distance learning
programs using random sampling, Delaney and Farren (2016) analyze participants’ views on what
their experiences have been with different aspects of the study. The study concluded that distance
learning students often have to negotiate for employment more than other students.
The method of delivery of distance learning programs determines their overall
effectiveness. The use of the problem-based approach has, for example, been determined to be
more effective. Gündüz, Alemdag, Yasar, and Erdem (2016) analyze a population of 1417 students
randomly sampled. The study evaluated the effectiveness of lessons delivered to sampled students
to determine if they understood what was being taught as part of their course requirements. The
study’s findings indicate that the teaching methods used in a distance learning environment affect
the performance of learners.
The use of distance learning programs impacts access to education, the cost of education,
and its overall quality. Xu and Xu (2019) carried out a detailed literature review of existing studies
on distance learning programs’ different features. The study’s findings indicate that students in a
distance learning program have higher dropout rates, but may spend less than their counterparts
using the traditional learning model.
Effectiveness of and Key Features of Distance Learning
Distance learning is considered to be less effective than the traditional in-person learning
model. Oliveira, Giannetti, Agostinho, & Almeida (2018) compares the traditional learning model
to the distance learning model to gauge each’s effectiveness. Participants who take part in either
learning models were sampled randomly, and data was collected from them using interviews. Key
factors analyzed include the support that the students in each model need and the available
resources against the needs. The study’s findings generally show that students in distance learning
programs generally require more support and resources than those using the traditional model and
are more likely to perform poorly if they don’t have access to the needed support.
Distance learning is also associated with a higher dropout rate. Ibrahim and Heijden (2019)
analyzes key factors that lead to higher dropout rates in Arabian online learning programs and
concludes that learners independence is a key factor that encourages students in distance learning
programs to drop out.
According to Alshahrani, Saudagar, and Alkhattabi (2018), distance learning is becoming
popular in Riyadh, but many improvements need to be made to make it more popular. Internet
connectivity will need to be improved, and more technical staff need to be hired by universities to
ensure the programs are delivered successfully (Alsaysi, 2016). Lack of trained personnel is,
however limiting the growth of distance education in Riyadh. According to Alzahrani (2017), the
lack of training on information technology is a key factor that is slowing down the growth of the
online and distance learning in Riyadh, which is likely to change in the future as IT penetration
improves. In terms of the overall effectiveness of distance learning programs, Bettinger, Fox,
Loeb, and Taylor (2017) find that distance learning courses reduce student success chances.
Improving Accessibility and Key Features of Distance Learning
According to Prabhashini and Latha (2017), online and distance learning can improve the
country’s literacy levels since it would make education available to more students than would
otherwise be possible. Due to limited opportunities for in-person learning, distance learning can
create additional slots that would otherwise not be available. Distance learning can also be used to
complement in-person classes. According to Lei and Lei (2018) evaluates the effectiveness of
courses that include both in-person and distance learning and concludes that they can be effectively
used as a learning delivery option.
Xiao (2017) analyzes the effect of limited interaction on distance learning programs’
effectiveness and concludes that it can adversely affect performance. The attitudes of students also
affect the chance of success in distance learning programs. According to Almarashdeh and
Alsmadi (2016), students’ attitudes regarding distance learning technologies determine their
performance and engagement in the learning environment. Therefore, it is important for schools
that use distance learning programs to use a variety of teaching methods if students are to remain
engaged and perform well(Borisova, Vasbieva, Malykh, Vasnev, & Bírová, 2016). The resources
available to distance learning students also determine their success. According to Nurse, Baker,
and Gambles (2018), distance learning students who, for example, can access more library
materials are likely to be more successful.
Adjusting to distance learning programs is also not complicated, meaning that most
students can easily adopt the programs. According to Folk (2019), the experience of first-year
students in distance learning programs, for example, does not affect their overall success in the
program. Students in distance learning programs, however, need to be more focused to succeed.
According to Inan, Yukselturk, Kurucay, and Flores (2017), effective planning was an important
requirement for distance learning programs’ success.
Hamann, Glazier, Wilson, and Pollock (2020), conclude that the higher the number of
course units a student takes online, their higher their chances of failure.
Gering, Sheppard, Adams, Renes, and Morotti (2018) conclude that students’ level of
engagement in distance learning programs determines whether or not they will be successful.
Aldiab, A., Chowdhury, H., Kootsookos, A., & Alam, F. (2017). Prospect of eLearning in higher
education sectors of Riyadh: A review. Energy Procedia, 110, 574-580.
Almarashdeh, I., & Alsmadi, M. (2016). Investigating the acceptance of technology in distance
learning programs. 2016 International Conference on Information Science and
Communications Technologies (ICISCT).
Alsaysi, A. (2016). Future policies for distance education in the Kingdom of Riyadh. International
Journal of Digital Society, 7(2).
Alshahrani, N., Saudagar, A., & Alkhattabi, M. (2018). Current Status and Prospects for E-learning
Management in the Promotion of Distance Education in Riyadh. ICEEL 2018: Proceedings
of the 2018 2nd International Conference on Education and E-Learning.
Alzahrani, M. (2017). The Developments of ICT and the Need for Blended Learning in Riyadh.
Journal of Education and Practice, 8(9).
Bettinger, E., Fox, L., Loeb, S., & Taylor, E. (2017). Virtual Classrooms: How Online College
Courses Affect Student Success. American Economic Review.
Borisova, O., Vasbieva, D., Malykh, N., Vasnev, S., & Bírová, B. (2016). Problem of Using
Innovative Teaching Methods for Distance Learning Students. International Electronic
Journal of Mathematics Education, 11(5).
Delaney, L., & Farren, M. (2016). No ‘self’ left behind? Part-time distance learning university
graduates: social class, graduate identity, and employability. Journal of Open, Distance and
E-Learning, 31(3), 194 – 208.
Folk, K. (2019). Evaluating the Impact of a First-Year Experience on Student Success at a Distance
Learning University. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 22(4).
Gering, C., Sheppard, D., Adams, B., Renes, S., & Morotti, A. (2018). Strengths-Based Analysis
of Student Success in Online Courses. Online Learning, 22(3).
Gündüz, A., Alemdag, E., Yasar, S., & Erdem, M. (2016). Design of a Problem-Based Online
Learning Environment and Evaluation of Its Effectiveness. Turkish Online Journal of
Educational Technology, 15(3).
Hamann, K., Glazier, R., Wilson, B., & Pollock, P. (2020). Online teaching, student success, and
retention in political science courses. European Political Science.
Ibrahim, M., & Heijden, B. (2019). Learner characteristics’ factors and their relationship with dropout in distance learning: the case of the Arab Open University in Riyadh Riyadh Branch.
Inan, F., Yukselturk, E., Kurucay, M., & Flores, R. (2017). The Impact of Self-Regulation
Strategies on Student Success and Satisfaction in an Online Course. International Journal
on E-Learning, 16(1).
Lei, S., & Lei, S. (2018). Evaluating Benefits and Drawbacks of Hybrid Courses: Perspectives of
College Instructors. Education, 140(1).
Nurse, R., Baker, K., & Gambles, A. (2018). Library resources, student success, and the distancelearning university. Information and Learning Sciences, 119, 77-86.
Oliveira, J., Giannetti, B., Agostinho, F., & Almeida, C. (2018). Decision making under the
environmental perspective: Choosing between traditional and distance teaching courses.
Journal of Cleaner Production, 172, 4303-4313.
Prabhashini, C., & Latha, M. (2017). E-Learning, A Ladder To Raise The National Literacy Rate
In Riyadh. Journal for Research Scholars and Professionals of English Language Teaching,
Xiao, J. (2017). Learner-content interaction in distance education: The weakest link in interaction
research. Distance Education, 38(1).
Xu, D., & Xu, Y. (2019). The Promises and Limits of Online Higher Education: Understanding
How Distance Education Affects Access, Cost, and Quality. American Enterprise Institute.
Finalization of title and research questions
After going through the past literature, you will develop a clear idea of the gap
in the area of your selected topic. Explore this gap and find a suitable title for
your chosen research topic. Please note that you are naming your research,
earlier it was just broad topic. Draft research questions can be tweaked or
improved with the gained knowledge from literature review. The title and the
research questions can be finalized with strong logic provided by supportive
literature. At this stage, you are expected to finalize the title and the research
In this assignment, all the literature available on the different approaches to the concept of your
research is explicitly reviewed. Here you can write the outline or plan of your review like in how
many sections and what you are discussing in each section.
Sample Main Heading 1 (as per your topic)
This is a sample. Replace with your own.
Social entrepreneurship in common parlance refers to entrepreneurial activity with an embedded
social purpose. Although, entrepreneurial activities with a social concern can be traced back in the
history but the social entrepreneurship as an innovative model for social problem solving has
recently emerged (Robinson et al., 2009; Mair & Marti, 2006; Peredo & McLean, 2006; Dees et
al., 2002; Chell, 2007). Thus, social entrepreneurship mainly stands for endeavors which primarily
focus over social value creation and thus social mission remains central to every social
entrepreneurship activity.
The social entrepreneurship has become a global phenomenon, impacting societies by catalyzing
social transformations for societal wellbeing. The phenomenon mainly addresses the basic needs
of human society which were neglected in the race for mainstream development. As such, the
phenomenon can occur in any society and often such local social entrepreneurship initiatives have
the potential for scale up and replication at the global level. E-g: Microfinance of Bangladesh.
Sample Main Heading 2(as per your topic)
This is a sample. Replace with your own.
As described above, the idea of social enterprise is certainly not new as businesses with social
missions can be traced back in the nineteenth century. Thus, the practice of social enterprise may
well be ahead of the theory as in other areas of social action (Sarah et al., 2002).
Sample Main Heading 3(as per your topic)
This is a sample. Replace with your own.
As described above, the idea of social enterprise is certainly not new as businesses with social
missions can be traced back in the nineteenth century. Thus, the practice of social enterprise may
well be ahead of the theory as in other areas of social action (Sarah et al., 2002).
References (in APA format)

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