There are four essay questions (for twenty points each), for each question you have ONE PAGE to answer. Start from question 2. Generally, each question will need most or all of that page, but don’t use more that one page. single spaced 11 point font.NAME: Enda Cummins
Fall 2020 – Final Exam
Principles of Marketing
Instructions: While you will benefit from using the powerpoints and the text and the internet just generally for this exam,
the answers here can’t simply be listing items listed in the text and the work must be your own. So while you are welcome
to use other sources you are NOT permitted to work with other students on the answers to any of the questions. You are
also not permitted to copy materials available elsewhere. There may be multiple versions of this exam, if so all versions
will be of comparable difficulty.
There are five essay questions (for twenty points each), for each question you have ONE PAGE to answer. Generally,
each question will need most or all of that page, but don’t use more that one page.
Answers MUST be typed and submitted using the fonts and margins of this document (so no crunching up margins
or using 14-point fonts), just start on the line for the answer.
There’s no need to even put your name on your exam since you’ll be submitting this file online which you should just
save under your last name. If it helps I’ll put a place for your name on this page. It’s unnecessary to fill it out, but some
people do kind of expect an exam to have a place for it.
This is NOT a timed exam. You will have several days to complete it. The exam availability began on Monday at 9:00.
There is a hard deadline for completion of this Wednesday at 6:00 p.m., so you’ll have several days to work on it. Please
don’t email your completed exam to me, but just submit it in this assignment folder on GAView. I’ll try to get these
graded as quickly as possible, but do keep in mind that they will be time intensive to grade.
This grade will replace your lowest grade, the number of points you need to make on it is listed on GAView and will
depend on both your current point total and the grade of the assignment that you would be replacing. If the grade is lower
than your lowest test this exam score will be listed, but will not reduce your course grade as reported out in GAView.
1. Question – You’re, obviously, familiar with the six elements that comprise the macro environment for businesses (if
you’re not, then that’s easy to find in great detail in chapter three). The complexity of each of those six elements can
be extreme, and the way they impact every firm can be very different. Discuss the changing macro environment and
the way each specific element of it relates to Amazon.
In today’s world many different aspects and elements change the way businesses operate on a daily schedule. In
order for a business to survive and make profits they have to adapt to constant changes. In many ways firms can take
advantage of macroenvironment elements to succeed, and on the other hand they have to defend themselves from negative
effects of the 6 elements. The six elements of the macro environment can be listed as Demographic, Economic, Natural,
technological, political, and cultural. These six elements are the larger societal forces that affect the microenvironment.
Understanding these forces leads to the ability to maintain healthy relationships with target customers. This is clearly
something that amazon has exceeded in with being one of the power houses in the business world currently. The first
element demography is the study of human populations in terms of the size, location, gender, age, race, and their current
employment. Amazon has looked very deeply into who their actual customers are. Just recently they have granted access
to third-party seller’s customers demographic information which lists details of age, income, gender, and marital status.
These insights will improve marketing strategies for third party sellers especially if they own a brand. Amazon uses
broken down audience segmentation to sell products faster and avoid marketing products to people they know will not
make a purchase. Everyone that has shopped on amazon knows about suggested items in their feed, this is from Amazons
study of obtaining what makes you who you are. The huge amount of data that’s researched very deeply to offer you a
couple of suggestions makes these recommendations accurate and handy.
Changes in the economic environment affect consumer purchasing power and spending. Economic factors are known
to directly predict the performance of the economy. Which leads to how profitable the organization will be. The factors
that contribute to the economic force are raw material costs, foreign exchange rates, and unemployment rates. Amazon
have used these factors to their advantage by placing and promoting products that suit that areas economic situation.
Amazon is used in over a hundred countries so obtaining this data is key knowledge of knowing what will be sold. Since
the pandemic has started Amazon has benefitted enormously by economic stimulus operations that has increased
The natural environment force consists of the physical environment and natural resources used by a firm for inputs to
produce outputs. Amazon wants to sell its shoppers what they desire, quickly and cheaply while using minimum fossil
fuels. Back in 2019 Amazon came out with a new Climate pledge of reaching net-zero carbon emissions by 2040. Jeff
Bezos stated that the whole company will be using 100% renewable energy by 2030. This is a huge step for the firm
because it shows customers that they care about the well-being of the world’s climate. This makes amazon more attractive
that its rival competitors.
With Amazon being the largest technological seller on the web they are constantly undergoing threats (hackers),
growing opportunity, and threats of growing competitors. With the continuously developing technological world Amazon
updates its tech assets every day. Amazons investment in technology boosts its competitive advantage and security in the
e-commerce industry. The firm makes sure they’re optimizing its online retail productivity by improving their customers
experience and security while purchasing items. Customers feel safe using Amazon which has led to all the positive
relationships with the company’s audience compared to competitors.
The Political force that changes the macro environment is put into place to influence and limit customers and firms
from taking advantage or being taking advantage of. Laws, government agencies, and pressure groups are created to keep
regulations on businesses practices to protect companies and consumers. Amazon benefits from political stability where
they’re dealing with countries who’s governments support e-commerce and opportunity. Amazon has great success
operating in westernized countries but they’ve experienced trouble reaching customers in chine due to the Chinese
government backing Chinese e-commerce companies. Amazon has complied with legal terms that governments have put.
Into place this also shows why their customers have developed a strong business relationship.
2. Question – What is the impact of Marketing on society on both a national and international level? (as you may have
guessed, this is a complicated question that involves not only the positive aspects of it on business, government and
society, but also the social criticisms of it as well, both here and around the world)
3. Question – Wearing masks might be thought of as a health issue, or as a political issue, or as a conformity issue (or all
of those), but regardless of our answers to any of those aspects of it, it is absolutely a marketing issue. Consider ALL
of the various influences and discuss how that has impacted your personal experience and opinion. Keep in mind this
isn’t an editorialization so much as it is an analysis (including things like social media, word-of-mouth, and ideas of
safety, as well as institutionalized methods of requiring conformity to change opinion and to change behavior).
4. Question – The text discusses five bases for behavioral segmentation. Discuss each in detail and then apply each to
how it is used by Starbucks.
5. Question – Disney owns lots of very different SBUs. Discuss the different methods that the book suggests that a
corporation might use to evaluate those and apply them to Disney’s SBUs. (Keep in mind that while the pandemic has
made previously reliable segments less profitable, it’s also a long game, so it’s not realistic to suggest that Disney get
out of the amusement park business).
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