Looking for a 1000 word assist with a research paper. Quality of work does not have to be great. C’s get degrees right? No formatting necessary. More information will be provided if your interested. Thanks!Issues in Information Systems
Volume 20, Issue 3, pp. 47-56, 2019
BROADENING PARTICIPATION IN CYBERSECURITY EDUCATION:
USING AN INTERSECTIONALITY LENS TO UNCOVER NEW PERSPECTIVES
Debra Nakama, University of Hawaii Maui, debran@hawaii.edu
Karen Paullet, Robert Morris University, paullet@rmu.edu
ABSTRACT
The three-year participatory action research case study provides an opportunity to uncover the critical outreach
role community colleges have in increasing access and broadening participation in cybersecurity career pathways.
The research addresses the question: How can learning opportunities for women and minorities be implemented to
broaden participation in cybersecurity education? The study achieved its overall goal to increase career awareness
and readiness of underrepresented high school students in cybersecurity by implementing an early admit pathway.
The study prepared students for: (1) careers in cybersecurity through career awareness, exploration and readiness
activities, and (2) college-level sequencing of information computer science and cybersecurity courses. The project
successfully recruited women and minority high school students to participate in a college cybersecurity pathway.
The lens of intersectionality as a critical inquiry of praxis, illuminates the uniqueness of early admit cybersecurity
education programs that focuses on an underrepresented student population that are not often the focus of
cybersecurity grants.
Keywords: cybersecurity education, intersectionality, broadening participation, women and minorities
THE CYBERSECURITY LANDSCAPE: INTERSECTIONALITY OF SPACE, PLACE,
COMMUNITIES AND GEOGRAPHIES
The 2018 (ISC)2 Cybersecurity Workforce study revealed that the cybersecurity skills shortage is growing
worldwide. Approximately 1500 cybersecurity and IT experts from North America, Latin America, Asia-Pacific,
and Europe responded to the survey. The shortage of cybersecurity professionals is close to 3 million globally in
which there is a shortage of 498 thousand in North America ((ISC)2, 2018).
According to the survey, 63% of respondents report that their organizations have a shortage of IT
staff dedicated to cybersecurity. And nearly 60% say their companies are at moderate or extreme
risk of cybersecurity attacks due to this shortage.
The 2018 Frost and Sullivan white paper, Innovation Through Inclusion: The Multicultural Cybersecurity
Workforce An (ISC)2 Global Information Security Study, reveals the challenge ahead.
While there are a number of ways to define diversity, this particular study focused on race and
ethnicity and defines minorities and people of color as those who do not self-identify as White or
Caucasian. This group makes up 26% of the U.S. cybersecurity workforce, which is roughly in
line with 28% of the general U.S. population (United States Census Bureau, 2010). In the U.S.
cybersecurity industry, 9% of workers self-identified as African American or Black, 4% Hispanic,
8% as Asian, 1% as American Indian or Alaskan Native and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, and
4% self-identifying as “Other.”
In the U.S., 17% of the cybersecurity workforces who identify as a minority are female,
proportionally exceeding overall female, proportionally exceeding overall exceeding overall
female representation (14%) by a margin of 3%. This demonstrates that the presence of women of
color positively impacts workforce numbers and not by simply increasing the quantity of females
within the profession. It is worthy to note that North American leads on the world in female
participation rates in cybersecurity 14% (Frost & Sullivan, 2017).
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Moreover, the 2019 (ISC)2 Women in Cybersecurity Report assert:
While there is evidence of progress as more women enter into and succeed in the field of
cybersecurity, the report also indicates that pay inequities persist. 17% of women globally reported
annual salaries between $50,000 – $90,000, as compared to 29% of men, and 15% of women earn
between $100,000 – $499,999, while 20% of men earn at least that much.
This paper challenges the ideas and assumptions about diversity and equity that exist in traditional educational
theory by employing an intersectionality lens to broaden perspectives in inclusive ways to mitigate social landscapes
that foster marginalization. “Intersectionality is a way of understanding and analyzing the complexity in the world,
in people, and in human experience” (Collins and Bilge, 2016, p. 25). Therefore, to achieve clarity of intentions that
facilitates us to critically examine mainstream practices we must understand the concept of intersectionality, as a
process that develops and illuminate invisibility.
This case study addresses the research question: How can learning opportunities for women and minorities be
implemented to broaden participation in cybersecurity education?
Community colleges play a critical role in providing access in higher education. However, there are a multitude of
factors beyond the individual preferences of community college students and the institutional characteristics of
community colleges that continue to face significant challenges related to producing equity in educational outcomes
for the wide range of students that they currently serve (Malcom, L. F., 2013).
Moreover, the community college connection to high schools is broad in scope and continues to increase via a
number of models that offer early college admit options (Bailey & Morest, 2006; Bragg, 2013). Community
colleges are central in focusing on this new wave of America’s high school women and minorities in initiatives to
improve their labor market prospects. Community college outreach serve as the critical bridge to address the access
and persistence of women and minorities in cybersecurity careers (Nakama, 2016).
The island of Pacific—population 150,203—is one of West Coast’s eight islands. Pacific is diverse, with 21.4% of
people reporting two or more ethnicities (Pacific Data Book, 2017). The largest ethnic groups are Native Hawaiian
(28.1%), White (26.9%), and Filipino (14.3%; Pacific Data Book, 2017). Native Hawaiians attain bachelor’s degree
at a rate (8.3%) over three times lower than the national average (30.3%; U.S. Census Bureau, S1501, 2016).
Geographical isolation limits Pacific’s low-income students’ ability to explore postsecondary options as travel to
other islands and the continental U.S. is only available by air.
The University of West Coast – Pacific College is a rural hybrid community college. It is the only college offering
both bachelors and associate degrees in the ten-campus University of West Coast (UWC) statewide system, which
includes seven community colleges and three universities. It is the only college on the island of the Pacific that
offers 20 associate and 3 bachelor’s degrees. Through its varied degrees and certificate options, Pacific College
addresses the needs of a diverse student population of approximately 3,500 students in a three-island community
with its main campus located on Kahului, Pacific. Pacific College outreach education centers are located on Pacific
in Nana and Kahaina. Also, the islands of Lolokai and Manai have outreach education centers.
This study highlights an early admit program involving a rural community college that offers a certification in
cybersecurity to local high schools via a Bachelor of Applied Science degree in applied business information and
technology (ABIT). Additionally, this district-wide program involves high schools with limited or no formal
cybersecurity education. Pacific has one school district, Pacific Department of Education, divided by complexes
consisting of the primary high school, feeder intermediate school, and feeder elementary schools. High schools on
the Pacific island lack access to basic technological services and certified technically trained teachers to teach
cybersecurity and computer science.
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METHODOLOGY
This study examined Grade 11 and 12 students who voluntarily enrolled for a semester or more in Pacific College’s
Cybersecurity Certificate of Competence. The National Science Foundation CyberCorps Scholarship for Service
(SFS) Defending America’s Cyberspace (Award #1516178) paid for college tuition, fees, and textbooks, as well as a
recruiter-agent/project coach, faculty, student mentors, and an outside evaluator.
High school students earned college credits while they were still attending high school. The high school students
were engaged in cybersecurity education by: (1) enrolling in a sequence of online college level introductory
cybersecurity courses; (2) using a cyber environment that combines problem-based learning; (3) participating in
hands-on competitions (i.e., Cyber Patriots); and (4) connecting with college/community mentors via academic
support and social integration strategies.
The following table describes the Cybersecurity Certificate of Competence (Table 1: Pacific College Cybersecurity
Certificate of Competence was a total of 12 college credits and the modality of teaching/learning was online (See
Table 1).
Table 1. Pacific College Cybersecurity Certificate of Competence Courses (Total 12 credits)
The below list presents the information computer science (ICS) courses and their descriptions for the
Cybersecurity Security Certificate of Competency.

ICS 101 – Digital Tools for the Information World: Emphasizes production of professional level
documents, spreadsheets, presentations, databases, and web pages for problem solving. Includes
concepts, terminology, and a contemporary operation system.

ICS 110 – Introduction to Computer Programming (Prerequisite: ICS 101 with grade C or better, or
consent): Teaches fundamental programming concepts including sequential, selection, and repetition
flow; variables and types; syntax; error types; compilation; linking; loading; and debugging. Introduces
algorithms flow charts, UMI, and other analytic tools. Explains and offers practice in problem solving
and critical thinking methods.

ICS 184 – Introduction to Networking (Prerequisite: ICS 101 with grade C or better, or consent):
Provides the student with the knowledge and skills to manage, maintain, troubleshoot, install, operate,
and configure basic network infrastructure, as well as to describe networking technologies, basic design
principles, and adhere to wiring standards and use testing tools.

ICS 171 – Introduction to Computer Security (Prerequisite: ICS 101 or consent): Examines the essentials
of computer security, including risk management, the use of encryption, activity monitoring, intrusion
detection, and the creation and implementation of security policies and procedures to aid in security
administration.
Procedures – External Evaluation
The project activities were annually assessed by an outsider evaluator. This paper focuses on the third-year external
evaluation of the Post High School Early Admit Cybersecurity Program Survey and the Cybersecurity Early Admit
Parent Survey. The Post High School Program Survey consists of 14 questions to highlight accomplishments of
program completers, to improve the program and for research purposes. The Cybersecurity Early Admit Parent
Survey was administered to highlight accomplishments to improve the program, for research purposes, and to seek
additional grant funding. The survey consisted of 14 questions. Nineteen students completed the Post High School
Early Admit Cybersecurity Program Survey and eighteen parents completed the Cybersecurity Early Admit Parent
Survey.
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RESULTS
Pacific College – Post High School Early Admit Cybersecurity Program Survey. There had an 86% response rate
from the Post High School Early Admit Cybersecurity Program Survey. Of those responding 67% were male and
33% were female. This compares favorably with the composition of both cybersecurity nationwide and worldwide.
Women globally comprise 11% of the cybersecurity workforce and 14% of the cybersecurity workforce in North
America (Frost and Sullivan, 2017).
In regard to ethnicity based upon self-reported data, 25% were Filipino, 17% were Japanese, 8% Hispanic, 17%
were White, 8% were Other Pacific Islanders including Native Hawaiians, and 25% Multiple Ethnicities. This is a
very diverse composition of ethnicities. Also, little research has been conducted on those with Filipino, Other
Pacific Islanders, and Multiple Ethnicities and STEM success. This is truly an underrepresented and under
researched population as it related to STEM education.
Filipinos are the second largest ethnic population on the Hawaiian Islands (Libarios, 2013) and the second largest
Asian ethnic group in the United States (Panganiban, 2016). Filipinos are disproportionately underrepresented at the
University of West Coast – Manoa (Libarios, 2013).
A new item that was explored on the Post High School Early Admit Cybersecurity Program Survey was whether the
students were First Generation College Students. Of the respondents, 58% of the students had parents who
completed a college or graduate degree while 42% of the students are considered First-Generation College Students.
The question was asked so that first generation college students can be further refined. Of the first-generation
college students, 20% of their parents did not attend college, 20% had parents with a vocational diploma, and 60%
had parents with an Associate’s Degree. It is interesting that all of the participants that selected White as their
ethnicity were First-Generation College Students. Thus, all of the High School Early Admit completers in this
program, met some category of underrepresented student.
The students overwhelming reported that these courses had a positive impact on their lives. All of the students
reported that by taking these courses they were more aware of the career opportunities in cybersecurity and were
more aware of what is involved in a cybersecurity career. Similarly, all were more prepared to take future classes in
cybersecurity and more confident to take college classes in general. Of the respondents, 87% reported that they were
interested in taking additional classes in cybersecurity and correspondingly, 87% reported that they planned on
doing further studies in cybersecurity.
All students reported that this opportunity would help them be more successful in the future and that they would
recommend this opportunity to others. These results demonstrate that the project is successfully accomplishing their
goal to increase awareness and preparation of underrepresented college students (women, minorities, and firstgeneration college students) for matriculation toward a career in cybersecurity.
An important part of the Post High School Early Admit Cybersecurity Program Survey was to find out what the
students are doing once they complete the program. Of those completing the program, 25% of the students are still
in high school, 8% of the students are at the Pacific College, 25% are at another college in West Coast, and 42% are
in college on the US mainland or abroad. All those who had graduated from high school were enrolled in college.
Of those enrolled in college, 43% reported that they are majoring in Computer Science or a Related Field, 43%
reported that they are majoring in another STEM Field, and 14% reported that they are majoring in a non-STEM
Field. Thus, 86% had been retained in a STEM field. This is a very impressive retention of STEM talent especially
with underrepresented students. Of those who have graduated, 44% have already taken additional college classes in
cybersecurity.
When asked the open-ended question about what was the most important thing that they learned from participating
in this project: 42% reported computer science knowledge; 25% reported that they learned about cybersecurity jobs;
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25% reported preparing for college; 25% reported time management skills; 17% reported cybersecurity knowledge;
17% reported how to take an online class; and 8% reported intuitive thinking.
When students were asked how the project benefited them personally, there was a broad range of responses.
Selected responses are included in the Table 2: Personal Benefits from the Project below.
Table 2. Personal Benefits from the Project
This project has shown me that college can be difficult, and the importance of time management.
I now will have an easier process getting my first job.
I was able to learn more things about cybersecurity and programming in general
I understand basic concepts now, instead of being completely clueless when I go to college.
Personally, I feel that taking these courses have allowed me to grow as an excellent communicator
between my classmates and instructor. I have also been able to manage my time more effectively to
complete assignments on time.
It helped me in real life with my home network
This project personally benefitted me by teaching me the basic of computer programming in Java.
Learning Java gave me the opportunity to learn the skill I need for engineering.
It has taken some financial burden off of me while I can learn more about the field I am interested in.
From doing these courses, I have become more prepared and ahead for college.
This projected allowed me to develop better working habits that will follow me into college. While
also providing me help in school due to my financial situation, without this program I would have
never considered taking these types of classes due to the cost.
It’s a great opportunity for high school students to get ahead of their peers and receive credits for no
cost to them.
The Post High School Early Admit Cybersecurity Program Survey students were asked an open-ended question
about what factors influenced their decision to participate in this program. The most frequently reported response
was that they were going into a career in cybersecurity or related field with 42% of the students reporting this
response. This was followed by the fact that the course was free which was reported by 25% of the students.
The importance of the good relationship that the project team had with teachers and counselors is reflected in that
17% of the Post High School Early Admit Cybersecurity Program Survey mentioned that they participated at the
recommendation of a teacher and/or counselor. Keep in mind that this was an open-ended question which makes
this a relatively high response.
When student completers were asked what could be done to improve the program, overwhelmingly the response was
that the students wanted more communication between the teachers and the students. Suggestions from students
included the following, “more communication between teachers and the students, maybe have the students meet up
and talk about how the class is going;” “thank you so much for the opportunity to take these courses. I suggest that
there should be more class discussions to help students understand the material better;” and “the classes should have
a Skype or a personal connection to the student to allow the student to be more successful”.
Cybersecurity Early Admit Parent Surveys. Parents of the project completers were also requested to complete an
online survey. This survey had a similar response rate to the Post High School Early Admit Cybersecurity Program
Survey. Of the parents responding, 64% were female and 34% were male. Consistently, the parents felt that this was
a positive experience for their children.
Likewise, all parents felt that they themselves were more knowledgeable about what might be involved in a cyber
career and 91% of parents responding were more aware of cyber career opportunities. All parents would
recommend this project to others.
When asked an open-ended question about the most important thing that their son and/or daughter gained from
participating in the Early Admit Program, the most frequent responses reported by 50% of the parents was that it
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prepared them for college and similarly 50% reported that their son/daughter learned better time management skills.
Other important gains included computer skills which were reported by 30% of the parents.
In addition, cybersecurity skills were reported as the most important gain by 20% of the parents and college credit
was reported as the most important gain by 10% of the parents. Note that these percentages add to more than 100%
because some parents reported more than one gain.
All parents reported that they encouraged their daughter and/or son to participate in the program. When asked why
the parents encouraged their daughter/son to participate in the program with an open-ended question the most
frequent response was that it would help them with their future success which was reported by 60% of the parents.
The second most frequent response was that it was a college level class which was reported by 50% of the parents.
The courses being free were reported by 20% of the responding parents. The opportunity to take a class online, to
learn about cybersecurity and to boost their confidence was reported by 10% of the parents. Again, since some
parents reported more than one reason, these responses also total more than 100%.
When asked to select important reasons for their son/daughter to participate, 91% of the parents selected to earn
college credit in high school and 91% selected that their son/daughter was interested in computer science before the
program began. While 91% of the parents felt that their daughter/son was interested in computer science before the
program began, only 55% reported that their daughter/son was interested in cybersecurity before the program began.
The free tuition was an important factor for 82% of the parents. The number of jobs in cybersecurity was important
for 64% of the parents, but the number of jobs nearby in cybersecurity was important for 36% of the parents. There
was no difference in the ethnicity of the parents and the importance of cybersecurity jobs nearby. The extra
assistance that was provided to help them be successful was important for 45% of the parents. The lowest priority
was that their friends were also participating which was only selected by 20% of the parents.
When asked how to improve the program, the parents generally felt that the program was “great the way it is”. The
only suggestions were “connection with other students and resources” and to “have in-class learning”.
It is interesting that for an open-ended question, there was surprising agreement about the type of gains from this
program. Yet, there were some interesting contrasts between parent and high school program completers’
responses.
For parents, the most important gains were related to time management and preparation for college, for high school
completers the most important gains were computer skills. One of the most interesting findings, were that time
management skills and preparation for college were reported by a large portion of groups, 50% of parents and 25%
of Post High School Early Admit Cybersecurity Program Survey. Gains in computer skills were reported by 42% of
Post High School Early Admit Cybersecurity Program Survey and 30% of parents. Cyber skill gains were reported
by 17% of Post High School Early Admit Cybersecurity Program Survey and 20% of Parents Survey.
The opportunity to have experience with an online class was reported by 17% of Post High School Early Admit
Cybersecurity Program Survey and 10% of parents. The final gains were listed by only one of the groups. Only the
parents (10%) reported college credit as the most important gain. Only Post High School Early Admit
Cybersecurity Program Survey reported preparation for cyber careers at 25% and intuitive thinking 8%.
The two most surprising findings from the Post High School Early Admit Cybersecurity Program Survey and Parent
Survey are the importance that both groups placed on the gains in time management and preparation for college.
While gains in computer skills and cyber skills were anticipated, the gains in these more general skills are notable.
Since underrepresented students such as those in this project are more likely to leave STEM programs, it is
important to understand which skills can be developed in high school to help them successfully navigate STEM
programs until their completion. When you couple the results of the Post High School Early Admit Cybersecurity
Program Survey with the results of survey of students who withdrew from the program along the way and teacher
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interviews, time management skills seem to be a major factor in whether students were successful in the program.
This merits further research.
This program has been very successful in the recruitment of disadvantaged high school students. Consistently each
year the program has had a higher percentage of females and members of diverse ethnic groups than are traditionally
represented in cybersecurity. Of the Post High School Early Admit Cybersecurity Program Survey completing the
survey 33% were female compared to 11% of the cybersecurity workforce worldwide. In addition, the findings this
year’s Post High School Early Admit Cybersecurity Program Survey demonstrate that the program has a large
percentage of first generation college students. Forty-two percent of the Post High School Early Admit
Cybersecurity Program Survey in the program were first generation college students. Every high school completer in
the program met some criteria of an underrepresented college student (gender, ethnicity and/or first-generation
college student). Many of the students who completed the Post High School Early Admit Cybersecurity Program
Survey were of Filipino descent. These students, while belonging to a large and important ethnic group in our
society, have not been the target of much research related to their success in STEM fields and cybersecurity in
particular.
The student completers and their parents reported that the program had a major impact on their lives. For the
parents the most important gains were in college preparation and soft skills like time management. For the students
who completed the Post High School Early Admit Cybersecurity Program Survey, these gains were important but
they also reported major gains in cybersecurity and computer skills.
The difference in reporting of gains between the two groups makes sense because the students would know more of
the specifics due to the skills that they are gaining in the classroom while the parents would be reflecting more on
the big picture of changes that they are seeing in their daughters/sons. Despite the differences on the open-ended
questions between the Parents Survey and Post High School Early Admit Cybersecurity Program Survey, both
parents and high school student completers overwhelmingly reported that the program increased their awareness of
cybersecurity jobs and that the program prepared them to be successful in college level cybersecurity courses in the
future.
The college credit, financial, and other assistance provided by the grant were important reasons for their
son/daughter’s participation in the program for the parents. For the students, their interest in a career in
cybersecurity or related field, free tuition, and the encouragement of teachers or counselors were the most important
reasons to participate.
All the high school completers from the program that have graduated high school are currently enrolled in college
with 86% of them enrolled in a STEM discipline. Forty-three percent student completers from the program reported
that they were majoring in computer science or a related field. This is an amazing success rate of recruiting and
retaining underrepresented students into the STEM pipeline.
All of the high school program completers were more prepared to take future classes in cybersecurity and more
confident to take college classes in general. From participating in this project, 92% of the high school student
completers were more interested in a career in cybersecurity. Of the responding high school student completers,
87% reported that they were interested in taking additional classes in cybersecurity and correspondingly, 87%
reported that they planned on doing further studies in cybersecurity. All students reported that this opportunity
would help them be more successful in the future and that they would recommend this opportunity to others. These
results demonstrate that the project is successfully accomplishing their goal to increase awareness and preparation of
underrepresented college students (women, minorities, and first-generation college students) for careers in
cybersecurity.
Throughout this project, students, early-admit high school program completers, parents, teachers, and stakeholders
have consistently reflected on the success of the program. Students, parents, and even those who withdrew from the
program have reported an increase in awareness about cybersecurity jobs. Amazingly, even 88% of the students
who withdrew from the program reported an interest in taking courses in cybersecurity in the future. Of the project
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Post High School Early Admit Cybersecurity Program Survey that have graduated high school all are enrolled in
college and 86% are majoring in a STEM field.
The limitation of this study is that is focused on one rural state population. If this model is implemented in other
rural areas in the future it will add to the understanding of the under-represented rural populations in cybersecurity
degrees.
SUMMARY
This case study has successfully achieved its overall goal to increase awareness and readiness of underrepresented
high school students for successful matriculation into careers in cybersecurity by implementing an early admit
cybersecurity career pathway for high school students. The study has also successfully met its objectives to: (1)
Prepare students for careers in cybersecurity through career awareness, exploration and readiness activities and (2)
Prepare students for college-level course cybersecurity program of studies through sequencing of information
computer science and cybersecurity courses.
The study successfully recruited women and other underrepresented high school students to courses that would
prepare them for a cybersecurity pathway. Overall, 32% of the students participating in the project were Native
Hawaiian or Part-Hawaiian. Over the three years, 39% of the participants were female. Throughout this project,
students, parents, teachers, and stakeholders have consistently reflected on the success of the program. Parents and
students (even those who withdrew from the program) have reported an increase in awareness about cybersecurity
jobs. Amazingly, even 88% of the students who withdrew from the program reported an interest in taking courses in
cybersecurity in the future. Of the project third year cohort that have graduated high school, all are enrolled in
college and 86% are majoring in a STEM field.
The intellectual merit of the study is that it demonstrates that an Early Admit High School Program in Cybersecurity
can increase awareness and readiness of underrepresented high school students for successful matriculation into
careers in cybersecurity by implementing an early admit cybersecurity career pathway for high school students.
Additional intellectual merit for this project is that it provides insights into the importance of time management
skills for the success of underrepresented students taking early admit cybersecurity classes while in high school.
This study provides insights into an under researched but important group of underrepresented college students,
Filipino Americans in the Pacific. Similarly, it provides insights into the recruitment and retention of firstgeneration college students into cybersecurity. Finally, it establishes that online introductory cybersecurity
certification of complete to remote rural sites has been demonstrated effective under certain conditions (e.g. longterm relationships established, support, changes happen on both sides of the education sector not just on one side).
Two of the major strengths of this project are their focus students’ intersectionality with institutional practices, a
critical inquiry and praxis for continual improvement. The project was not satisfied, as many projects would be, that
their early admit students were preforming somewhat better than traditional college students. The project team
immediately sought to gather information and to act upon the information that some students were withdrawing
from the program to further improve this project and to reduce the number of students failing or withdrawing from
the program. Information was gathered from the following sources, student surveys, surveys from students who
withdrew from the program, and interviews with the project leader, the new teacher, and the grant coach to help
understand why students were withdrawing.
In addition to looking at recruitment of women and other underrepresented students into the cybersecurity pipeline,
for the program to be successful, it is important that these students are successful within the pipeline once they
enter. The data indicate that the success rate of the early admit students was also higher than the success rate of the
traditional class. Again, it is important to note that both classes had the same instructor. This demonstrates that
while there is room for improvement in the success rate of the early admit students, the students compare favorably
to the success rate of a traditional class.
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One of the immediate responses to try to increase the student success rate was the hiring of a new teacher for the
program. The new teacher assumed the role of teacher for the program in January of the second year. She is taught
ICS 184 in the spring and followed by ICS 171 in the summer. She is uniquely qualified to teach in this project due
to her extensive background in cyber and information security. She also felt that the student population and the
format of the course (online) created specific challenges that needed to be addressed to maximize the success of the
students and to allow for replication of the program on a wider scale. The changes in course design reflected the
project’s commitment to accessibility, so that all learners can access all course content and activities, and to
usability, so that all learners can easily navigate and interact with course components (Nakama & Paulette, 2018).
The broader impact of this program is that it has been successful in recruiting and retaining underrepresented
students both women and minorities into the STEM pipeline. The study’s innovative approach of recruiting students
from the Arts and Communication pathway rather than only the STEM pathway is a lesson that can be replicated
nationally. Therefore, this program is working toward meeting the cybersecurity needs of the United States. The
underrepresented students in this program (e.g. Native Hawaiian, Filipino, multiple ethnicities) are not often the
focus of National Science Foundation grants. In addition to the recruitment of women and ethnic minorities into the
cybersecurity pipeline, the project has also successfully recruited and retained first generation college students. The
definition of underrepresented students was expanded to include these first-generation college students as the grant
progressed as part of the iterative process of evaluation. In addition, women and minorities may also be first
generation college students.
Access to opportunities to engage with STEM is a crucial issue of equity; however, it not the only issue of equity
(Bevan, B., Barton, A. C., and Garibay, C., 2018). The project took into consideration the specific cultural context
in which it was working and maximized the community assets to make the program more effective. The three-year
case study highlights how to: (1) cross educational sector boundaries to transition from internal optimization to
external interaction; (2) orchestrate resources to create a learning collective space; and (3) use intersectionality, a
critical theoretical perspective, to discover creative ways to engage a broader, more diverse group of students in
cybersecurity. Often there is a six-year delay between high school graduation and minorities entering the Pacific
College Cybersecurity Program, the project has potential to close this gap.
Researchers, policy makers, scientific funding agencies, businesses/industries, educational institutions and
practitioners are investing significantly in the recruitment and retention of cybersecurity skills pipeline shortage that
has been growing worldwide. Bringing an intersectionality lens to understanding underrepresented students
provides a clearer view of how to retain rural, underrepresented students into the cybersecurity pipeline. From the
convergence of intersectionality and education, we used a critical inquiry of praxis sensitivity to space, place and
geography as a tool for social justice and broadening participation in cybersecurity (Collins, P. H. & Bilge, 2016;
Grazanka, P. R., 2014). It our hope that this research can serve to assist others to broaden their perspectives on
broadening participation in cybersecurity within the confines of large, bureaucratic, often patriarchal systems.
REFERENCES
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National Cyber League (NCL), CyberUp Partner to Grow
Cybersecurity Talent Pipeline.
Date: Sept. 1, 2020
From: PR Newswire
Publisher: PR Newswire Association LLC
Document Type: Article
Length: 749 words
Content Level: (Level 5)
Lexile Measure: 1530L
Full Text:
The National Cyber League (NCL), a national leader in high school and college student cybersecurity competitions, and CyberUp, an
organization offering cybersecurity apprenticeships and youth cybersecurity competitions, have agreed to partner in providing middle
and high school students a pathway to advance in cybersecurity knowledge and skills.
CHEVY CHASE, Md., Sept. 1, 2020 /PRNewswire-PRWeb/ — The National Cyber League (NCL), a national leader in high school and
college student cybersecurity competitions, and CyberUp, an organization offering cybersecurity apprenticeships and youth
cybersecurity competitions, have agreed to partner in providing middle and high school students a pathway to advance in
cybersecurity knowledge and skills.
NCL, powered by its partner Cyber Skyline, is an online biannual cybersecurity community and competition for high school and
college students consisting of hands-on, realistic, industry skill-based challenges across multiple learning domains, designed to test
and build their cyber skills. More than 10,000 students from over 550 high schools, colleges and universities across the U.S.
participate annually in NCL competitions. NCL is a 501(c)3 non-profit organization founded in 2011 by cybersecurity-focused
academics from several public agencies.
CyberUp engages youth from middle- and high schools through camps, clubs, and competitions. These activities are designed to
introduce students to cybersecurity basics and open their minds to the idea of pursuing a technical career. CyberUp hosts Summer
camps and cybersecurity competitions, and has introduced more than 7,000 students to the world of cybersecurity. CyberUp, also
powered by its partner Cyber Skyline, provides a safe environment for students to practice their cybersecurity skills in PowerUp:
Cyber Games. CyberUp is a 501(c)3 non-profit organization founded in the St. Louis region in 2016 with a mission to cultivate the
cybersecurity talent pipeline.
Students in middle school and high schoolers with limited experience or knowledge of information technology or cybersecurity can
progress in a clear path from CyberUp to NCL competitions. CyberUp’s competitions are designed to address the needs of entry level
students and teachers in middle and high schools. CyberUp provides training resources, a practice gym, and connects industry
professional volunteers to help the students and teachers explore cybersecurity and be successful during the competition. The
PowerUp: Cyber Games competition provides students with a foundation of cybersecurity knowledge, covering topics found in the
CompTIA’s Security+ certification. Students with an interest in pursuing cybersecurity careers and an aptitude for independent
learning can then move on to compete in the NCL Spring and Fall Competitions, which offer practice gyms, a community of Player
Ambassadors and coaches, basic-to-advanced brackets, individual games and team games. The NCL competitions focus on nine
specific categories, which are aligned to the NIST NICE Cybersecurity Workforce Framework, the NSA Knowledge Units, and
CompTIA’s security certifications.
NCL Commissioner Dan Manson says, “The partnership between CyberUp and NCL will give middle and high school students a way
to advance from basic understanding of cybersecurity to a fun, game-based and completely virtual exercise and competition platform
designed to be a hands-on bridge between the classroom and careers.”
Tony Bryan with CyberUp explains that “Engaging youth is critical to fill future cybersecurity roles. The St. Louis region alone
experienced a jump in 1,100 open roles from 2019. We must grow the entire workforce ecosystem to meet hiring needs for
companies. We welcome the opportunity to work with NCL to continue engaging middle- and high-school students beyond their
classroom activities.”
About CyberUp CyberUp is a 501(c)3 non-profit with a mission is to cultivate the cybersecurity talent pipeline for today and tomorrow.
They accomplish this through their nationally recognized apprenticeship program and youth cybersecurity competitions. To learn
more, visit wecyberup.org, or contact Tony Bryan at tony@wecyberup.org or 314-764-5419.
About National Cyber League The National Cyber League is a 501(c)3 non-profit organization founded in 2011 to provide an ongoing
virtual training ground for participants to develop, practice, and validate their cybersecurity knowledge and skills using nextgeneration high-fidelity simulation environments. NCL’s distinguishing game solution is the integration of learning objectives in all its
activities, in part by aligning customized content in NCL Gymnasiums with simulations and games in the NCL Stadium. To learn more
about NCL, visit nationalcyberleague.org or contact Dan Manson at dmanson@cpp.edu or (909) 455-2403.
About Cyber Skyline Cyber Skyline, is a leading cloud-based cybersecurity skills evaluation platform that helps students and
professionals track their skills growth and helps businesses find, identify, and cultivate talent. It is also the technology partner for the
National Cyber League. To learn more about Cyber Skyline, visit cyberskyline.com or contact Franz Payer at
fpayer@cyberskyline.com or (443) 996-9707.
SOURCE National Cyber League
Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2020 PR Newswire Association LLC
http://www.prnewswire.com/
Source Citation (MLA 8th Edition)
“National Cyber League (NCL), CyberUp Partner to Grow Cybersecurity Talent Pipeline.” PR Newswire, 1 Sept. 2020, p. NA. Gale In
Context: College, https://link-galecom.ezproxy.umgc.edu/apps/doc/A634141507/CSIC?u=umd_umuc&sid=CSIC&xid=66470540. Accessed 15 Sept. 2020.
Gale Document Number: GALE|A634141507
Disclaimer: This is a machine generated PDF of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your
convenience and is in no way intended to replace original scanned PDF. Neither Cengage Learning nor its licensors make any
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AVAILABLE” and are not retained in our systems. CENGAGE LEARNING AND ITS LICENSORS SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ANY
AND ALL EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY WARRANTIES FOR AVAILABILITY,
ACCURACY, TIMELINESS, COMPLETENESS, NON-INFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE. Your use of the machine generated PDF is subject to all use restrictions contained in The Cengage Learning
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machine generated PDF functionality and any output derived therefrom.
ISACA Survey: Though the Field of Cyber Security Still
Relatively Young, Demand Continues to Skyrocket
Date: Feb. 23, 2017
From: Entertainment Close-up
Publisher: Close-Up Media, Inc.
Document Type: Article
Length: 564 words
Content Level: (Level 5)
Lexile Measure: 1470L
Full Text:
ISACA said that sophisticated cyber security defenses are increasingly in high demand as a cyber security attack is now viewed as
an inevitability.
According to a release, a majority of surveyed organizational leaders fear they are ill-equipped to address these threats head-on.
According to a new cyber security workforce study by ISACA’s Cybersecurity Nexus (CSX), only 59 percent of surveyed
organizations say they receive at least five applications for each cyber security opening, and only 13 percent receive 20 or more. In
contrast, studies show most corporate job openings result in 60 to 250 applicants. Compounding the problem, ISACA’s State of
Cyber Security 2017 found that 37 percent of respondents say fewer than 1 in 4 candidates have the qualifications employers need to
keep companies secure.
“Though the field of cyber security is still relatively young, demand continues to skyrocket and will only continue to grow in the coming
years,” said Christos Dimitriadis, ISACA board chair and group director of Information Security for INTRALOT. “As enterprises invest
more resources to protect data, the challenge they face is finding top-flight security practitioners who have the skills needed to do the
job. When positions go unfilled, organizations have a higher exposure to potential cyberattacks. It’s a race against the clock.”
More than 1 in 4 companies report that the time to fill priority cyber security and information security positions can be six months or
longer. In Europe, almost one-third of cyber security job openings remain unfilled.
Most job applicants do not have the hands-on experience or the certifications needed to combat today’s corporate hackers, according
to the report by the global technology association.
“The survey underscores a fundamental disconnect between employer expectations and what candidates can actually bring to the
table,” said Matt Loeb, ISACA CEO. “Employers are looking for candidates to make up for lost time but that doesn’t necessarily mean
a significant academic investment. Many organizations place more weight in real-world experience and performance-based
certifications and training that require far less time than a full degree program.”
ISACA’s report highlighted where hiring managers’ expectations are shifting most as they consider candidates for open cyber security
positions:
-55 percent of respondents report that practical, hands-on experience is the most important cyber security qualification
-25 percent say today’s cyber security candidates are lacking in technical skills
-45 percent don’t believe most applicants understand the business of cyber security
-69 percent indicate that their organizations typically require a security certification for open positions
ISACA offers five recommendations to help find and retain qualified cyber security talent:
1. Invest in performance-based mechanisms for hiring and retention.
2. Create a culture of talent maximization to retain the staff you have. Even when budgets are tight, there are things that can be done
that don’t impact the bottom line: alternative work arrangements, investment in personnel growth and technical competency, and job
rotation to help round out skills.
3. Groom employees with tangential skills-such as application specialists and network specialists-to move into cyber security
positions. They are likely to be highly incented to do so and it can help fill the gap in the long term.
4. Engage with and cultivate students and career changers (e.g., an outreach program to a university or an internship program).
5. Automate basic security operational tasks to decrease the overall burden on staff.
More information:
www.isaca.org/state-of-cyber-security-2017
((Comments on this story may be sent to newsdesk@closeupmedia.com))
Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2017 Close-Up Media, Inc.
http://www.closeupmedia.com/
Source Citation (MLA 8th Edition)
“ISACA Survey: Though the Field of Cyber Security Still Relatively Young, Demand Continues to Skyrocket.” Entertainment Closeup, 23 Feb. 2017. Gale In Context: Biography, https://link-galecom.ezproxy.umgc.edu/apps/doc/A482192063/BIC?u=umd_umuc&sid=BIC&xid=dec7dbf2. Accessed 15 Sept. 2020.
Gale Document Number: GALE|A482192063

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