(Great English is a must!! No grammar errors!)(Paraphrase the paper attached)(Nothing more needs to be done, only paraphrase the document)(NO grammar errors or incohernt senteces)(The document is attached,APA Format)(The number of words should stay close to the original file)File Name : Rephrase——————————–Task: The document is fully retrieved from external sources due to that it has a high plagiarism percentage. Your purpose is to reprhase each question in order to reduce the plagiarism to under 6% ( make it passable through Turnitin).Other information: DO NOT USE ANY PARAPHRASING SOFTWARES. I already tried them and they fail doing their job. The plagiarism still remains high and the final version is incoherent. Please focus on maintaining the coherency of the document attached. Providing a work which is not coherent will result in a refund.Format:APA FormatNo plagiarism is acceptedNo Grammar errors ( refunds will be asked for incoherent/ full of grammar errors papers)*** The work will be checked for plagiarism through Turnitin by the professor. It is essential for everything to be free of plagiarism otherwise sanctions will be imposed***——–Thank you for your supportTHE WORKING CELL
Module 2 Case 1
Joshua K. Neely
Trident University
Module 2 Case 1
Cellular Cause of disease –
Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease that is caused by mutations of and the improperly
functioning of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) genes. CFTR genes
provide instructions to the CFTR protein which are responsible for mucus production in the
lungs, liver, pancreas, intestines, and sweat glands (Cystic Fibrosis. n.d.). The CFTR protein is
accountable for the movement of chloride and sodium ions from inside and outside the cells.
The mutations in the CFTR gene causes the protein to function improperly resulting in abnormal
mucus development and blockages in the lungs and digestive system. Cystic fibrosis alters the
mucus secretions of the body’s epithelial cells. Epithelial cells make up the outside layer of
tissue that lines every open surface of the body, inside and out (Shannon, S. 2016). This includes
the pathways and cavities in the lungs, the urinary tract, the liver, and the reproductive tract. The
excessive accumulation of mucus results in difficulties in breathing and a higher propensity to
bacterial infections (Silva, 2016).
Disease – Basic Information –
Cystic fibrosis symptoms depend on which organs are affected; however, most common
symptoms affect the lungs and pancreas. Other symptoms include muscle and joint pain, salty
skin, sinus infections, delayed growth, gastrointestinal issues, fever and low body mass index
(Cystic Fibrosis. n.d.). When a patient is seen by a doctor for diagnosis of Cystic fibrosis the
doctor will run a number of tests on the individual. Typically, the first test the doctor will run
will be a Chloride Sweat test. This test is thought to be the most reliable way to tell if an
individual has CF (Cystic Fibrosis. n.d.). It checks the salt levels from an individual’s sweat.
Those with CF have higher levels (60 mmol/L or higher). The other tests are the Newborn
screening test, Carrier test, and the Prenatal test. CF is inherited in an autosomal dormant
manner and is caused by the presence of mutations in both copies (from both parents) of the gene
for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. Those with a
single copy of the gene are carriers and have normal body functions. Individuals with CF have
increased chances of respiratory diseases which typically lead to respiratory failure, damaged
airways, chronic infections, and growths of nasal polyps. Furthermore, people who have CF
have problems maintaining good nutrition due to the lack of nutrients the body is able to absorb
and are also prone to infections because of the build-up of mucus in their lungs.
Disease Treatment and Research –
Cystic fibrosis can be treated with medications in regards to the specific symptoms of the
body systems that are affected. Treatments include airway clearance techniques, medications
such as antibiotics, anti-inflammatory, bronchodilators, and mucus thinners, and also surgeries
(Cystic fibrosis, 2020). Most diagnosis are confirmed when an individual is still a child and the
day to day events and practices up until adolescent age stay somewhat “normal”. Transitioning
into adulthood and sometimes sooner, the body begins to decline and the individual becomes
disabled. Despite advancements, a person with CF life expectancy is on average from 10 to 37.5
years. Therefore, Cystic fibrosis is a life-threatening disorder and there currently is no cure.
There are various clinical trials that individuals with CF can request to be a part of. These trials
include breathing techniques, transplant lists, and new medicine testing. There is also research
being done in gene replacement therapy and DNA studies. Continued research is critical to those
affected because it could one day lead to a cure.
Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disorder that effects the lungs, liver, digestive system and
other bodily systems. CF affects the cells that produce mucus and sweat which are usually thin
but instead become thick. There is no cure for CF but there are multiple medications and
therapies used in treatment. Doctors and scientists continue to research to find ways to treat and
cure those affected by the disease.
Cystic Fibrosis. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/cysticfibrosis
Cystic fibrosis. (2020, March 14). Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseasesconditions/cystic-fibrosis/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20353706
Shannon, S. (2016). The Cellular Mechanism of CS: The Basics. Cystic Fibrosis News
Today. Retrieved from https://cysticfibrosisnewstoday.com/2015/03/12/the-cellular-mechanismof-cf-the-basics/
Silva, P. (2016, September 2). Living with Cystic Fibrosis. Retrieved from

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