Role of Language and Script in Raising the Religious Revivalism
Role of Dialect and Script in Raising the Devout Revivalism in Colonial Punjab aYESHA TABBASUM The dialect played the natureical role in the falsehood of identities discurrent the senior communities in pr-parathion India. The Urdu dialect had patent clear as a dishonorable dialect discurrent all the communities and was, in the deficiency of a dishonorable creed the North-western Provinces and distinct portio other portios of the subcontinent. I. H. Qureshi, History of the Pakistan,(BCC& Comforce Karachi, university of karachi2006) 807.
Language Wrangle inchoate Urdu and Hindi Although it was creed which was the key defining lineament of Muslim unity, the Urdu dialect was an momentous nature. For Hindus, exclude for the devout communities, the nature of creed had to be played down to relinquish alienating other senior devout communities. However, opposing linguistic pluralism, the Hindi dialect remained an momentous nature in the composition of the Hindu unity for the Hindu brotherhood.
Tariq Rahman, dialect and politics in Pakistan,(Karachi, oxford university comcomforce 1996) 60 As in colonial Punjab Hindu patshalas,which taught mantras and basic attainments of the shastras, Muslims Quran schools, and Sikhs teachingal institutions which taught the divine exhope of Sikhism, the Granth ,and the Gurumukhi Script of the Punjabi dialect used by Sikhs. The exist peruse traditional dialect of north India in the British era was referred to interchangeably as Urdu, Hindi.
Paul Brass, dialect, creed and politics in north India (Cambridge: Cambridge university compress, 1974), 129 But its was written in opposed script: as Urdu was written in Persian script occasion Hindu brotherhood used it in Hindi for exoteric despatch purposes was exotericly written in Devanagri, to-boot notorious as Nagri. as Urdu was incorporated distinct Arabic and Persian articulation occasion Hindi prepare on Sanskrit was cited by Hindu nationalists as “proof” that Islam was exotic creed in India and there dialect should be the dialect of dominion.
Vickie Langhor, Colonial teaching plan and spperuse of persomal devout moves; the cases of British Egypt and Punjab,(Cambridge university compress,2005) 174 But it was the reality that Urdu dialect being used by Hindu brotherhood of north Indian. Till 1931 multifarious Hindu in colonial Punjab were literate in Urdu instead of Hindi dialect. Before the portioition of India, during the colonial Punjab Dialect and script grace the senior action of dissolution discurrent the senior communities of as Hindus –Muslims and Sikhs.
Ever gone the opening of the 11th eldership Northern India was remained lower the Muslim rulers. During opposed eras opposed Muslims rulers determined at opposed opportunitys and opposed dynasties spoke divers dialects as Afghans spoke Pushtu and Turks Turki and the Mughals spoke the Persian, Sikhs of the Punjab A Con-over of Confrontation and political mobilization, Dr Sarfraz Khawaja, (Islamabad, Pakistan: existent compass dept, 1985) 41 As it was the reality that in the era of the posterior Mughals, Urdu and Persian twain dialects were the flatter dialects.
When British succeeded the subcontinent they continued the corresponding dialects as the flatter dialects. Shan Muhammad, the augmentation of Muslim politics in india1900-1919 (New Delhi, shish publishing offspring, 1991) 35. These dialects were lowerstood, to-boot spoke at capacious flake, but inbreds dialects were to-boot spoke by the inbred communities as Hindi, Punjabi Pahari Hindustani. In which Urdu and Hindi twain dialects were the compromise of inbred and exotic dialects Two sides of one fabricate Hindi Urdu, or Urdu Hindi
As Hindi and Urdu were two calls of one dialect script opposediate inchoate them it designated Urdu when it written in perso-Arabic script (twain dialects were associated delay Muslim brotherhood) and when written in the Nagari script (associated delay Hindu brotherhood); there were some lexical and phrasal differences. Yet the two calls for one dialect were frequently used for the corresponding dialect and its scholarly-works segmented into portios capaciously on the basis of script and creeds. S.
Settar, Indira BaptistaGupta, Pangs of portioition vol ?,(new Delhi: Manohar publisher,2002. ) 34. Punjabi Hindu brotherhood used Urdu dialect as the dialect of trade, journalism and legislation. Urdu dialect was to-boot the senior dialect of scholarly indication not solely in Muslim brotherhood in Hindu brotherhood as courteous in British Punjab occasion Punjabi was the traditional dialect. Atamjit Singh, The dialects distribute in Punjab South Asian Graduate Research Journal, 9Achadmic of the Punjab new America) Volume 4, No. , jump 1997 Colonial legislation dialect prudence in Bihar and its behind proceeds Urdu was compromise of Persian, Arabic and Hindi Punjabi. As this traditional dialect promptly grace to be written in the Persian and Arabic dialects dialect. Urdu gained the as professional dialect condition behind the abolishment of the Persian dialect in distinct tracts of the northern India so at 1842 employer Lawrence open that “the use of this dialect (Urdu) is speedily unfurling discurrent all the ranks and is beseeming a lingua Franca” Abid41
Till the 2nd half of the 9th eldership Urdu not solely became a command dialect but to-boot nature of Muslim rule and strength But In 1837 Persian dialect had been replaced by Indian dialects and Urdu was conduct-ind as the dialect of ‘the prodigious hope of dominion notorious as Hindustani dialect, not solely in Bihar and NWP and portions of mediate as courteous, Howeternally Legislation did not lack personalized Urdu to be used as the dialect. An classify of 19 April 1839 declared:
The agreeable and chronicles be chronicled in stood acquitted Oordoo, and that the inbreds priestly officers… do not just dubitate a hindoostanee for a Persian verb at the end of sentence… Tariq Rahman, dialect and politics in Pakistan,(Karachi, oxford university comcomforce 1996) 62 As distinct colonial officers cow frequently and frequently Urdu dialect they were in the regard to accepting Hindi as the dialect dialect of the Hindustani people’s. The controller of exoteric ordain systematic in his report: Indo-Persian of the flatters has no raisond’etre exclude as a remnan and remnant of mahomedan sway Abid 62.
In 1872 sir Gorge Cambell, Lieutenant Governor of Bihar, current classify in which Urdu replaced by Hindi dialect in the flatters of the tract and this classify was strictly imposed in 1880 by Sir Ashley Eden. Abid 62. As Hindi dialect was not sheer one dialect but the amalgamate of the multifarious inbreds’ dialects of north India in its widest perspective it could be productive that Hindi dialect traditional in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and the Colonial Punjab. Dr Sarfraz Khawaga, Sikhs of the Punjab A con-over of confrontation and political mobilization, (Islamabad: Existent compass depot, 1985. 43. As Hindi dialect had written in Nagari or Devengri script. The Nagri or Devangri alphabet originated someopportunity in the 11th eldership AD. initially patent clear to transcribe Sanskrit it posterior mitigated to transcribe delay distinct other dialects. The call Devangri is made up of two Sanskrit articulation: Deva, which resources god, Brahman or celestiai and nagari, which resources city. The call is distinctly translated as ‘script of the city’, ‘heavenly/divine script of the city’ or [script of the] city of the god or priests’.
So for Hindu brotherhood Hindi dialect purged of all Persian and Arabic accretion which served to remind them of Muslim brotherhood superiority, As Devanagri script had a devout significance for Hindu brotherhood gone it was the species which Brahmans used and in which Sanskrit compasss were written. So due to the devout partnership Hindu brotherhood oceantain to colonial legislation in distinct tracts that Urdu written in Persian script must be replaced by the Hindu delay its Devanagari script.
To design their call-for they presented the conclude that: (Urdu dialect was an amalgam of Persian and Arabic dialects -and it -and it was oppressive upon us by our bygone rulers…but it was by no resources trustworthy by the peoples at capacious…no Hindu gentlemen would eternally stoop to ground his feminine in Urdu dialect and Persian consequently the compasss written in these dialects are usually disgusting. Report by the north western tract and qudh countrified committee of teaching office, (1884) , 490. quated by Dr Sarfaz Khawaja op. cit, 72.
Pro Hindi –script activities of Hindu brotherhood and Muslim confutation Pro Hindi disturbance traveled from Bihar to the other tracts due to the two ocean concludes as: primitive when British replaced the Urdu dialect delay Hindi dialect this resolution contribute the bravery to the Hindu brotherhood due to this resolution posterior Bengali Hindu brotherhood started denounce in Bengal. Secondly then when Fateh chand constituteal committees to comcomforce for Hindi dialect. Pro-Hindi move undeviatingly spperuse in Hindu brotherhood of the north colonial Indian.
Then pro Hindi disturbance travelled from Bihar, Bengal to other tracts such as NWFP. There was quashed reason occurred: a deficiency to conduct-in Devanagari in the colonial Punjab and NWFP. Jaslack Singh, Jinnah India-partition-independence (New Delhi: Rupa publisher, 2009. ) 41 Muslim reaction towards Urdu Hindi wrangle in colonial Punjab Enforcement of Hindi dialect became a action for hardship discurrentst senior devout communities as Hindus and Muslims in distinct portios of indo-Pak Subcontinent. But in colonial Punjab arose for the very primitive opportunity in 1882.
Paul R. Brass, Language, Creed and Politics in North India (London :Cambridge university compress,1974),287 The call-for of supply of Hindi dialect in davanagri script for Urdu in Persian script in colonial Punjab by fashionable Hindu brotherhood was not solely action the Hindu - Muslim communal fight. But pro-Hindi belligerence, Devanagri script constitute Punjabi Hindu brotherhood and protective activities of Punjabi Muslim brotherhood for Urdu dialect was pushed the twain devout communities to save and aid share of their own communities.