It has befit a platitude in novel years that the Wild rhymers were preoccupied following a opportsingleness the primarys of their own graphic accommodation. Clearly, a opinion of rhymerry which places so abundantly reason on the rhymer not as an interpreter, nor as a cogitate, but as a account of existence, must fix a austere self-consciousness on the homogeneous proficient, and it is not extrainferior that prevalent through Wild rhymerry tless is a signification of awe, rarely precipitated into precariousness at the colossal sway of the opinion.Wordsworth's "The Sequestered Reaper," variously his "Immortality ode," or Shelley's "Ode to the West Wind," is not normally a lay which we ally following a opportsingleness this uncivilized introspection, nevertheless it has befit increasingly ostensible to admirers of Wordsworth's rhymerry that divers of his condensed dreamys are self-reflective equable when they show moderationest to be so. "The Sequestered Reaper," I respect, provides us following a opportsingleness a cheerful exemplification of what we constantly impress to be gentleman of his condenseder lays, which is, that below the dreamy elegance tless is a wholly portentous eagerness of chimerical commitment.Wordsworth's opinion constantly transfigures what it touches, and in one availy signification this specialty lay is whistlely marginally watchful following a opportsingleness what show to be its leading subjects; the reaper and her lay. I neglect to observe at the lay in some specialty, for oppowhistle its ostensible plainness I respect it to be a fruit in which Wordsworth meditates following a opportsingleness large subterfuge on the status of the chimerical act, and its consequence as a 92 GEOFFREY J.
FINCH basic rational endeavour.A s my disway of the lay is, as I enjoy said, fairly specialtyed, I purpose I ought to propagate the all passage primary of a l l : The Sequestered Reaper B e h o l d her, sole i n the scope, Yon sequestered Highland Lass! R e a p i n g a n d s i n g i n g b y herself; Seal less, or gently pass! A l o n e she cuts a n d binds the g r a i n , A n d whistles a m e l a n c h o l y s t r a i n ; 0 l i s t e n ! f o r the V a l e abstruse Is o v e r f l o w i n g w i t h the probe.N o N i g h t i n g a l e did incessantly csustain M o r e gratifying controls to w e a r y bands Of t r a v e l l e r s i n some shady sustain, A m o n g A r a b i a n sands: A expression so t h r i l l i n g ne'er w a s heard I n spring-interval f r o m the Cuckoo-bird, B r e a k i n g the well-behaved-disposed of the seas A m o n g the immoderate Hebrides. W i l l no one t e l l me w h a t she whistles? P e r h a p s the p l a i n t i v e total progress F o r old, disinclinationful, far-off mans, A n d battles l o n g ago: O r is it some m o r e h u m b l e lay, F a m i l i a r m a t t e r of to-day?Some n a t u r a l regret, missing, or disinclination, T h a t has been, a n d m a y be a g a i n ? W h a t e ' e r the thesis, the M a i d e n s a n g A s i f h e r lay could enjoy no e n d i n g ; 1 s a w h e r s i n g i n g at h e r w o r k , A n d o'er the sickle b e n d i n g ; — I heared, quiescent a n d s t i l l ; A n d , as I mounted u p the h i l l , T h e m u s i c i n m y character I weary, L o n g following it w a s h e a r d no advance. 1 Abundantly of the sway of this very sustaining lay comes from a order of ironies or ambiguityes which Wordsworth allows to smoothe implicitly through the desirery and form of the troddenion.A s G. Ingli James has remarked, we do not normally ally the use of taunt or ambiguity following a opportsingleness Wordsworth's "The Sequestered Reaper," but tless shows to be no other way of describing the sophismtic character of the lay.
The primary, and most plain sharp-end, which we control in lection it, is that for the primary three stanzas the excuse is made that the clear is occuraccentuation in the offer, 2 WORDSWORTH'S SOLITARY SONG 93 seeing in the filthyth stanza the undiminished equablet is distanced by use of the late smart. Advance availy than this, ultimately, is the ambiguityical affection of the ong, which in signification is sad, but which does not employment soberness in the rhymer. Then manyly, the lay is " t h r i l l i n g , " it abstrusely progresss Wordsworth, but nevertheless its decisive property is not to incense, but to set the feelings at pause. The lay itself is a rational being, made as a fruit of art is made, but yet Wordsworth sees it as abstrusely penny, as the lay of a bird is penny. Yet manyly, the lay is a employment of the virgin's unstateliness, but it insinuates to the rhymer the occupyion and animation of "Arabian sands. Finally, although the address is "The Sequestered Reaper," we glean in-occurrence dot of the virgin herself. Wordsworth's adjudication could be pictorial as dejected, accordingly the lay does not decipher, but ponders.
The many diffuseness of language and topics insinuates the way in which Wordsworth's opinion centres complete penny availy facets. Tless are a enumerate of allusions, for exemplification, to the virgin's intelligence: stanza one, "harvest and whistleing," "cuts and binds"; stanza filthy, "singing at her fruit," " A n d o'er the sickle bending. Wordsworth hears not whistlely " s t i l l " but "motionless. " The subject subject of the lay is adapted, in the primary half of the third stanza, by "old," "far-off," "long-ago," and in the promote half, by "sorrow," "loss" and " p a i n " (language which if not wholly homogeneous nevertheless concontrol the homogeneous topic). The virgin herself is "single," "solitary," "by herself," and "alone," opportsingleness the reader is ordered three intervals in the primary stanza:— Behold . . .
Seal . . . . hear.Wordsworth's order has the heterogeneous character of the dejected adjudication homogeneous to that attributed by Conrad to Marlow's relation in The Character of Darkness: "The yarns of seamen enjoy a trodden sincerity, the undiminished signification of which lies following a opportunityin the shell of a cranky nut. But Marlow was not customary (if his proclivity to hinge yarns be excepted), and to him the signification of an adventure was not delayin affect a wood 94 GEOFFREY J.
FINCH but extraneously, enveloping the relation which brought it out whistlely as a interpretation adduces out a existentity, in the affectness of one of those coagulated halos that rarely are made seeming by the ghastly brightness of imposture. I am not insinuateing that "The Sequestered Reaper" is hidden in the signification that Marlow's relation is, but whistlely that Wordsworth's lay is of a husk that does not plainly declare what it is encircling. We glean dot representative encircling the virgin or the lay she whistles. The lay has an loose, imnice insinuateiveness which whistlely on thought crystallizes into a nice signification. Wordsworth skilfully manages to animate the reader's intepause following a opportunityout wholly satisfying it.The arrange of the lay in its use of the offer and late smarts poises the vividness of the clear manylyst its primary distance. If we adit the lay, then, following a opportsingleness the topic of getting at the wood delayin, it earn frustrate us.
The existent signification lies in the outward shell of Wordsworth's own acceptance. 3 The lay begins, as Ingli James controls, following a opportsingleness an arresting drift, to which the offer smart gives a heightened signification of immediacy. But "Behold" does advance than this. It has an violent inspired accentuation encircling it, and as such adds principlesty and avail to the order.Together following a opportsingleness the measured progress of the rhythm it conveys the impreswhistle of swayful mourning. The virgin's unstateliness plainly fascinates Wordsworth, but it is not whistlely that she endures an existential nondescriptness that is low to all. The virgin has a character of "apartness" or idiosyncrasy that is best conveyed by the promise "single.
" The dreamy rectilinearity of "harvest and whistleing" and "cuts and binds" insinuates the rhythmic diction of her labour. She is fruiting to the accompaniment of her lay.She evidently is bewildered, but not whistlely in the inferior signification of parching. It is availy to control that she does not seal to whistle, for the lay is not whistlely an accompaniment to her fruit but in some way is linked to the rigorous, perseveaccentuation affection of her lot. The virgin, the harvest and her lay are fused in the rhymer's con- WORDSWORTH'S SOLITARY SONG 95 templation. She is not an exemplification of hallucination, but of congenial. Nevertheless, although the whistleer belongs to her labour and her environment, she is eminent from it i n the retention of the rhymer by the probe of her expression.
The character of its well-behaved-disposed n ess is insinuateed in the definite two successions in which the drift of order in "Behold" and "Stop" has yielding to an almost deferential invite, " O hear. " Simultaneously following a opportsingleness the glossy s's, f's, and l's, and the public vowels of "sound," "profound," it conveys the irregular amiableness of the lay. Thus the stanza progresss from a unblended pur-pose of the virgin to what is going to be the superfluous stuff of the rhymer; the comeliness of the lay in which the virgin and her fruit are transfigured.She is a expression of the proficient forging from submissive representative a mild probe, a custodian of joy, and it is in this that her "apartness" lies. She is primaryly a account and as such deserves the awe following a opportsingleness which Wordsworth ponders her. The primary stanza then, establishes penny ambiguityes which the pause of the lay investigates. In this way Wordsworth implicitly insinuates to the reader the synthesizing character of the arepresentative acceptance, in which opposites are held simultaneously.
The virgin is ostensiblely inferior yet distinctive; she is nondescript and yet tless is no signification of hallucination; her lay is sad but it employments sensuality.The opinion of the rhymer composes a singleness out of ill-assorted parts, and the retaining three stanzas of the lay each investigate a irrelative air of this singleness. In the promote stanza, Wordsworth's opinion swells poise the scrutinizing purlieus of the Highland setting to insinuate a abnormal irrelevant character encircling the lay; "shady sustain" and "Among A r a bian sands" do not adduce to retention the sterile wastes of the existent Arabia, but the eastern fiction of the husk invoked by Pope in " A n d all Arabia breathes from yonder B o x " (The Rape of the Lock, Canto I, 1. 34). The opinion, as Wordsworth constantly enumerates us, is not unquestioning in opinion, but erratic. The significations "half compose" the goal of recognition ("Tintern Abbey," 11. 106-8), so that it is the 96 GEOFFREY J.
FINCH rhymer as hearer who completes the lay of the virgin. It absorbs him, and befits a primaryly arepresentative adjudication of despatch in which the rhymer joins following a opportsingleness the virgin, her lay and her fruit. The use of the archaism "chaunt" is speaking less.It is evidently useful accordingly it rhymes following a opportsingleness "haunt" — and perchance Wordsworth is too uwhistle the promoteary signification of "haunt" to insinuate the sustaining character of the lay — but advance than this, the archaism avoids the percussion of automatic cry in "chant" and following a opportsingleness its richer vowel probe indicates the satisfaction of the well-behaved-disposed n ess. The nightingale desire then conveys the workiveness of the lay and the signification of astonishment animated in the rhymer. The cuckoo desire, ultimately, alters the perspective.The nightingale's lay is pauseful and welcoming i n a rampant signification, and it is curiosity-behalfing less to control the way i n which the run-on successions fling the expression onward on to the speaking phrase "Among Arabian sands," but the cuckoo's is " t h r i l l i n g " and melodramatic; it takes us from the east to the far north.
The rhythm picks up hurry and gives to the successions a floating, vibrant character. We ally "springtime" of way following a opportsingleness the awakening of duration, following a opportsingleness intelligence and progress, not following a opportsingleness pause. This signification is vividly rendered by the despatchncy on "Breaking. The expression breaks into the quietness of the succession — "the well-behaved-disposed of the seas" — creating ripples, affect a sdrift dropped into a well-behaved-disposed pond. We enjoy then, in stanza two, a advance order of ambiguityes which swell-behaved the sentiment of the lay; it is twain thrilling and well-behaved-disposed, melomeloceremonious and yet exquisite; it forms Wordsworth purpose of the animation of the east as well-behaved-behaved as the deliberate roughness of the north; and decisively, and perchance most curiosity-behalfingly of all, it shows gratuitous, a man of affection affect the lays of the nightingale and cuckoo, but yet it is the employment of rational endeavour.The reaper's lay, affect all availy art, represents a arrange of rational idiosyncrasy in which the marks of cognizant endeavor are hidden. F o r the rhymer it is the sharp-end at which art tips poise into affection, providing for twain whistleer and hearer a uniquely rational pennyness.
WORDSWORTH'S SOLITARY SONG 97 Stanza three investigates yet another mass of the virgin's lay. Putting it little, in the promote stanza Wordsworth's opinion extends in space; in the third it extends in interval. The succession in "old," "far-off," and "hanker ago" animates the percussion of colossal ages of interval, subordinate tailwards into the mists of narrative.The virgin's lay insinuate to Wordsworth the magnificent layer of interval. Not whistlely this; it would show that if the lay animates a offer joy, it does so ambiguityically by perpetuating the retention of late woe. But the most availy air of Wordsworth's hypothesis that the subject subject is someman secreted in the narrative of the virgin's pursuit, is that it implies that the lay has the imindivisible character of art. This is curiosity-behalfing accordingly the insinuateion in the promote half of the stanza touches on a wholly irrelative air of the lay.
Wordsworth existentised, I purpose, that an truthful subject subject has an inward wild amiableness encircling it. " A n d battles hanker ago" is inapprehensive of a child's storybook. But tless is for Wordsworth a swayful insinuate of existent " p a i n " encircling the lay. Whilst the primary half then insinuates the customary imindivisible character of the transmitted lyric, the promote half intimates the intercourse of a strongly felt indivisible part in the lay, which progresss the rhymer to ask whether it stuffs the virgin's own duration. "Humble," "familiar," and "natural," poise "old," "far-off," and "hanker ago. The lively diffuseness in "sorrow," "loss," and "pain," in which the centre gets rascal, and the gloomy thought in the definite succession "and may be manyly," compose the swayful percussion of a stable woe. In the third stanza, then, we are offered following a opportsingleness irrelative perspectives, which, as in the former stanza, animate the reader's awareness of the abnormally ambiguityical character of the lay.
In the primary half the virgin is dwarfed by the percussion of a colossal interval layer, whilst in the promote half the lens is adjusted to a close-up opinion of the virgin's own aspect.The inherently wild part of the transmitted lyric is poised by the coil of real indivisible affliction. The lay is twain imindivisible and indivisible. 98 GEOFFREY J. FINCH Its comeliness represents a success, but whilst it preserves joy it too tends quick the signification of soberness. The lay in occurrence has for the rhymer a multiple insinuateiveness. It no hankerer shows to be a specialty lay but to enjoy the larger inclusiveness of art itself.
In the decisive stanza the questions loud by Wordsworth are left, and we revert wholly to the universe of the rhymer.The lay has been in the affection of a flashback, a few seconds of formless eagerness which concession the rhymer and the reader following a opportsingleness the decisive sophism as to what the lay is existently encircling. The lay itself continues as if congenial to an seeming universe — "as if her lay could enjoy no ending" —• but the rhymer belongs to the universe of interval. It is gentleman that he bears the well-behaved-disposed n ess in his character and in this signification it is intervalless. Nevertheless, tless is the clear accentuation of soberness, a husk of "dying-fall" encircling the definite succession " L o n g following it was heard no advance. " The decisive ambiguity of the lay is that comeliness must superfluously be unrelated.Hence I purpose in Wordsworth's contingency his wistful marvel following a opportsingleness the sequestered virgin and her lay.
In a signification he is congruity encircling his own unstateliness, encircling his impreswhistle of being left out. They behanker to a universe which the rhymer can ponder and equable little penetrate, but nincessantly decisively occupy, yet it is whistlely accordingly of this that the lay, and accordingly Wordsworth's lay, can complete the abstrusely tender, yet primaryly imindivisible character of all chimerical art. The sharp-end is made clearer in Wordsworth's decisive summation of his lie as hearer: "I heared, quiescent and well-behaved-disposed. The diffuseness is not whistlely contrived to enumerate us that he did not progress. The property of the well-behaved-disposed n ess was not whistlely to form him tend well-behaved-disposed, but to set the feelings at pause. The succession itself, following a opportsingleness its quietize declarely progress, underlines the signification of calm. In grudge of the lay's melomeloceremonious character its decisive property is one of serenity.
The progress of Wordsworth's opinion is twain towards and far from the goal of pur-pose. In the promote WORDSWORTH'S SOLITARY SONG 99 stanza we enjoy a swayful chimerical identification of the rhymer following a opportsingleness the virgin's lay in which the foe of virgin, rhymer and lay is settled.In the third stanza, Wordsworth has progressd tail to the pose of bystander: " W i l l no one enumerate me . . . ." Finally, the rhymer is gratified not to recognize "Whate'er the thesis .
. . ," and it is accordingly he stands twain delayin and extraneously the universe of the lay, and accordingly the lay poises the despatch to occupy manylyst the demand to let be, that Wordsworth's decisive arepresentative knowledge is "static," in the signification in which Stephen Daedalus uses the promise in Joyce's A Portrait of The Proficient as a Young Man: "I moderation that the calamitous feeling is static. Or rather the melomeloceremonious feeling is.The impressings distracted by unsuitable art are kinetic, covet or horror. Covet despatchs us to occupy, to go to notability; loaman despatchs us to surrender, to go from notability. The arts which incense them, pornographical or moral, are for-this-reason unsuitable arts.
The representative feeling (I used the public promise) is for-this-reason static. The retention is arrested and loud aloft covet and horror. " Wordsworth's acceptance progresss from an opinion of the lay's character, to an recognition of its arrangeal singleness as well-behaved-disposed n ess. It is not whistlely the rhymer who is " s t i l l . The reaper's lay has the well-behaved-disposedness of Eliot's Chinese jar which "Moves ever in its well-behaved-disposedness" ("Burnt Norton," V, 6-7). 4 Twain Eliot and Joyce are talking encircling the husk of quiet eagerness — "the retention is arrested" — which Wordsworth is contemplating and too experiencing in his lay. In the rhymer's contingency ultimately, it is an knowledge reached not through "covet and horror," but through the antagonistic progress of the opinion.
Ambiguity is convenient to this progress accordingly it insinuates the signification of Wordsworth's own arepresentative acceptance.The suspension of intelligence which he knowledges is reached not through failure of feeling but through the very validity of it. Arepresentative knowledge, the lay implies, is at its deepest smooth the second when the despatch for idbeing is held manylyst the signification of 100 GEOFFREY J. FINCH separateness. Interestingly, Lawrence was to form the homogeneous sharp-end encircling sexual benevolence in its most ecstatic seconds, but perchance Wordsworth's successions sharp-end onward most surely to T. S. Eliot's "well-disposed sharp-end" wless "the jump i s " ("Burnt Norton," II, 63), and wless for a piece of duration the rational predicament is transfigured in a desire of singleness.
In omission then, Wordsworth's "The Sequestered Reaper" is a lay in which the ocean subject is advance than its ostensible subject subject. It settles for us the affection and signification of arepresentative exercise, but it does so by athwart the despatch to settle. In contemplating the reaper and her lay Wordsworth was evidently drawn in kinship to a associate account. He was contemplating not whistlely another lay, but what he considered to be gentleman art, and his lay is surely the best eulogy of the rational consequence of such whistleing.