Biomultiformity Profile of India Dr. Md.
Sabir Hussain Associate Professor Geography and Senior Biomes India occupies 7th pose in the globe in provisions of degree and Asia's relieve enlightenedst community following a suitableness an area of 3,287,263 balance km. The Indian oceanfix tightenes from 8 4' to 37 6' N boundary and from 68 7' to 97 25' E craveitude. It has a fix frontier of some 15,200 kms and a seacoastline of 7,516 km (Government of India, 1985). India’s northern frontiers are following a suitableness Xizang (Tibet) in the Peoples Republic of China, Nepal and Bhutan.In the north-west, India rims on Pakistan; in the north-east, China and Burma; and in the east, Burma. The southern peninsula extends into the poetical waters of the Indian Ocean following a suitableness the Bay of Bengal untruthful to the south-east and the Arabian Sea to the south-west. For administrative purposes India is divided into 24 declares and 7 concert territories.
The dominion is residence to environing 846 favorite mass, environing 16% of the World's population (1990 figures). Resume facts for India are loving.Physically the solid dominion is divided into disgusting symmetryately courteous limitd provinces - the Himalayan Mountains, the Genetic enlightened stream unembellisheds, the southern (Deccan) plateau, and the islands of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar. The Himalayas in the far north grasp some of the first peaks in the globe. The first mountain in the Indian Himalayas is Kanchenjunga (8586 m) which is located in Sikkim on the rim following a suitableness Nepal. To the south of the ocean Himalayan massif laid the Lesser Himalaya, encouragement to 3,600- 4,600 m, and personateed by the Pir Panjal in Kashmir and Dhaula dhar in Himachal Pradesh.Further south, flanking the Indo-Gangetic Plain, are the Siwaliks which loosen to 900-1,500 m.
The northern unembellisheds of India tighten from Assam in the east to the Punjab in the west (a length of 2,400 km), extending south to finish in the distinguished swamplands of the Rann of Kachchh (Kutch), in the declare of Gujarat. Some of the enlightenedst enlightened streams in India including the Ganga (Ganges), Ghaghara, Brahmaputra, and the Yamuna course athwart this province. The delta area of these enlightened streams is located at the top of the Bay of Bengal, somewhat in the Indian tate of west Bengal but for-the-most-distribute in Bangladesh. The unembellisheds are remarkably homogenous topographically: for hundreds of kilometres the solely appreciable buttress is formed by floodunembellished bluffs, inferior intrinsic levees and hollows public as 'spill patterns', and the belts of ravines formed by gully erosion contemporaryly some of the enlightenedr enlightened streams. In this zone, abnormity in buttress does not achieve 300 m (FAO/UNEP, 1981) but the unvarying angularity conceals a protracted bargain of pedological medley.The unrovingly prolific alluvial silts and clays of the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta in north-eastern India, for specimen, opposition strongly following a suitableness the comparatively barren sands of the Thar Desert which is located at the western close of the Indian distribute of the unembellisheds in the declare of Rajasthan. The sky of India is dominated by the Asiatic monsoon, most administeringly by rains from the south-west inchoate June and October, and drier winds from the north inchoate December and February.
From March to May the sky is dry and hot. Wetlands India has a costly medley of wetfix habitats.The aggregate area of wetlands (quiet enlightened streams) in India is 58,286,000ha, or 18. 4% of the dominion, 70% of which comprises areas subordinate paddy husbandry. A aggregate of 1,193 wetlands, crust an area of environing 3,904,543 ha, were commemorative in a proemial catalogue coordinated by the Department of Science and Technology, of which 572 were intrinsic (Scott, 1989). India most administering wetfix areas are shown in. Two sites - Chilka Lake (Orissa) and Keoladeo Open Ring (Bharatpur) - keep been determined subordinate the Session of Wetlands of Interopen Moment (Ramsar Convention) as life opposedly suggestive waterfowl habitats.
The dominion's wetlands are unconcealedly opposediated by province into view categories (Scott, 1989): the reservoirs of the Deccan Plateau in the south, concertedly following a suitableness the lagoons and the other wetlands of the southern west seacoast; the colossal distinguished expanses of Rajasthan, Gujarat and the excavation of Kachchh; freshwater lakes and reservoirs from Gujarat eastwards through Rajasthan (Kaeoladeo Ghana Open ring) and Madhya Pradesh; the delta wetlands and lagoons of India’s east seaseashore (Chilka Lake); the freshwater marshes of the Gangetic Plain; the floodunembellished of the Brahmaputra; the marshes and swamps in the hills of north-east India and theHimalayan foothills; the lakes and enlightened streams of the montane province of Kashmir and Ladakh; and the mangroves and other wetlands of the isfix arcs of the Andamans and Nicobars. Forests India possesses a opposed identicalness, not solely owing of its geography, fact and refinement but as-well-behaved owing of the protracted multiformity of its intrinsic ecosystems. The panorama of Indian jungles strolls from incessantlyunseasoned poetical rain jungles in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the Western Ghats, and the north-eastern declares, to dry alsink purge noble in the Himalaya to the north.Between the two extremes, the dominion has semi-everunseasoned rain jungles, deciduous monsoon jungles, thorn jungles, subpoetical sink jungles in the inferior mountain zone and mild mountain jungles (Lal, 1989). The disposal of the senior incessantlyunseasoned jungle shapes of the province are depicted in. One of the most administering poetical jungles classifications was exposed for Greater India (Champion, 1936) and following republished for present-day India (Champion and Seth, 1968). This vestibule has proved to keep remote contact delayout India.
In it 16 senior jungles types are recognised, subdivided into 221 inferior types. Structure, physiognomy and floristics are all used as characters to limit the types. The ocean areas of poetical jungle are establish in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands; the Western Ghats, which fringe the Arabian Sea seacoastline of peninsular India; and the protracteder Assam province in the north-east. Slight remnants of rain jungle are establish in Orissa declare. Semi-everunseasoned rain jungle is aggravate catholic than the incessantlyunseasoned shape somewhat owing incessantlyunseasoned jungles guard to dethrone to semi-everunseasoned following a suitableness rational suspension.There are bulky differences in twain the flora and fauna inchoate the three senior rain jungle provinces (IUCN, 1986; Rodges and Panwar, 1988). The Western Ghats Monsoon jungles begravitate twain on the western (coastal) margins of the ghats and on the eastern border where there is less rainfall, shows the disposal of jungle in Kerala State, which holds distribute of the Western Ghats stroll.
These jungles hold diverse tree temperament of protracted negotiateable wisdom (e. g.Indian rosewood Dalbergia latifolia, Malabar Kino Pterocarpus marsupium, teak and Terminalia crenulata), but they keep now been cleared from divers areas. In the rain jungles there is an monstrous compute of tree temperament. At slightest 60 percent of the trees of the conspicuous canopy are of temperament which individually supply not aggravate than one percent of the aggregate compute. Clumps of bamboo begravitate contemporaryly streams or in indisposed drained hollows throughout the incessantlyunseasoned and semi-everunseasoned jungles of south-west India, probably in areas once cleared for shifting farming.The poetical vegetation of north-east India (which grasps the declares of Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura and Meghalaya as courteous as the unembellished provinces of Arunachal Pradesh) typically befalls at elevations up to 900 m.
It embraces incessantlyunseasoned and semi-everunseasoned rain jungles, juicy deciduous monsoon jungles, riparian jungles, swamps and grasslands. Everunseasoned rain jungles are establish in the Assam Valley, the foothills of the eastern Himalayas and the inferior distributes of the Naga Hills, Meghalaya, Mizoram, and Manipur where the rain gravitate achieves 2300 mm per annum.In the Assam Valley the hercules Dipterocarpus macrocarpus and Shorea assamica begravitate singly, casually attaining a girth of up to 7 m and a hview of up to 50 m. The monsoon jungles are oceanly juicy sal Shorea robusta jungles, which begravitate remotely in this province (IUCN, 1991). The Andamans and Nicobar islands keep poetical incessantlyunseasoned rain jungles and poetical semi-everunseasoned rainforests as courteous as poetical monsoon juicy monsoon jungles (IUCN, 1986). The poetical incessantlyunseasoned rain jungle is solely imperfectly less narrately in stature and costly in temperament than on the oceanland.The dominant temperament is Dipterocarpus narratelyiflorus in hilly areas, suitableness Dipterocarpus kerrii is dominant on some islands in the southern distributes of the archipelago.
The monsoon jungles of the Andamans are dominated by Pterocarpus dalbergioides and Terminalia spp. Marine Environment The adjacentshore seacoastal waters of India are extremely costly fishing facts. The aggregate negotiateable marine seize for India has stabilised aggravate the latest ten years at inchoate 1. 4 and 1. 6 favorite tonnes, following a suitableness fishes from the clupeoid cluster (e. g. sardines Sardinella sp.
, Indian shad Hilsa sp. and whitebait Stolephorus sp. accounting for approximately 30% of all fixings. In 1981 it was estimated that there were approximately 180,000 non-mechanised boats (environing 90% of India’s fishing irascible) carrying out slight-scale, buttress fishing activities in these waters. At the identical term there were environing 20,000 mechanised boats and 75 deep-sea fishing vessels unreserved oceanly out of ports in the declares of Maharashtra, Kerala, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. Coral reefs begravitate contemporaryly solely a few sections of the oceanland, mainly the Excavation of Kutch, off the southern oceanfix seacoast, and environing a compute of islands facing Sri Lanka.This unconcealed shortness is due amply to the closeness of senior enlightened stream systems and the sedimentary regime on the continental disposal.
Elsewhere, corals are as-well-behaved establish in Andaman, Nicobar, and Lakshadweep Isfix clusters although their multiformity is reputed to be inferior than in south-east India (UNEP/IUCN, 1988). Indian coral reefs keep a remote stroll of instrument which are of negotiateable prize. Exploitation of corals, coral sweepings and coral sands is remotespread on the Excavation of Mannar and Excavation of Kutch reefs, suitableness ornamental shells, chanks and pearl oysters are the premise of an administering reef activity in the south of India.Sea fans and seaweeds are inbred for honorary purposes, and there is a troublesome lobster fishing activity contemporaryly the south-east seacoast, notably at Tuticorin, Madras and Mandapam Marketable munimentation of aquarium fishes from Indian coral reefs has gained moment solely of-late and as yet no organised endeavor has been made to muniment these instrument. Reef fisheries are unconcealedly at the buttress raze and yields are spoken. Other renowned marine areas are sea grass beds, which although not promptly munimented are costly as habitats for negotiateablely harvested temperament, distributeicularly prawns, and mangrove stands.In the Excavation of Mannar the unseasoned tiger prawn Penaeus semisulcatus is catholicly harvested for the ship-result negotiate.
Sea grass beds are as-well-behaved administering alimentation areas for the dugong Dugong dugon, plus diverse temperament of marine turtle. Five temperament of marine turtle begravitate in Indian waters: Unseasoned turtle Chelonia mydas, Loggertop Caretta caretta, Olive Ridley Lepidochelys olivacea, Hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata and Leathertail Dermochelys coriacea. Most of the marine turtle populations establish in the Indian province are in dismiss.The main argue for the diminish in computes is unbiased rational predation. Turtles are netted and speared contemporaryly the completion Indian seacoast. In south-east India the annual seize is estimated at 4,000-5,000 fleshlys, following a suitableness C. mydas accounting for environing 70% of the harvest.
C. caretta and L. olivacea are the most remotely consumed temperament (Salm, 1981). E. imbricata is casually eaten but it has caused deaths and so is usually caught for its shell balance. D. coriacea is boiled for its oil which is used for caulking boats and as guard from marine borers.
Casual netting is remotespread.In the Excavation of Mannar turtles are quiet argueably sordid adjacent seagrass beds where shrimp trawlers act, but off the seaseashore of Bengal the growing compute of mechanized fishing boats has had the issue of increasing casual seize rates (Kar and Bhaskar, 1981), shows public turtle nesting areas in the Andaman Islands. Biomultiformity Temperament Multiformity India holds a protracted superbes of biological multiformity in its jungles, its wetlands and in its marine areas. This costlyness is shown in absolute computes of temperament and the symmetry they personate of the globe aggregate (see Table 1). Table 1.Comparison Inchoate the Compute of Temperament in India and the World. Cluster Compute of temperament Compute of temperament SI/SW in India (SI) in the globe (SW) (%) ____________________________________________________________ _________ Mammals 350(1) 4,629(7) 7.
6 Birds 1224(2) 9,702(8) 12. 6 Reptiles 408(3) 6,550(9) 6. 2 Amphibians 197(4) 4,522(10) 4. 4 Fishes 2546(5) 21,730(11) 11. Flowering Plants 15,000(6) 250,000(12) 6. 0 ____________________________________________________________ _________ Table 1 India has a protracted divers philosophical institutes and university departments spirited in opposed aspects of biodiversity. A enlightened compute of scientists and technicians keep been affianced in catalogue, learning, and monitoring.
The unconcealed declare of recognition environing the disposal and costlyness of the dominion's biological instrument is consequently fairly cheerful. Inventories of birds, mammals, trees, fish and reptiles are moderately entire.Knowlbehalf of portioicular attention clusters such as primates, pheasants, bovids, antipathetic birds, orchids, and so on, is steadily suitable through collaboration of private scientists following a suitableness those from aggravateseas. The moment of these biological instrument cannot be aggravateestimated for the continued happiness of India population. Antipathetic Temperament India has divers antipathetic locate and vertebrate temperament. Inchoate locates, temperament endemism is estimated at 33% following a suitableness c. 140 antipathetic genera but no antipathetic families (Botanical Survey of India, 1983).
Areas costly in endemism are north-east India, the Western Ghats and the north-western and eastern Himalayas.A slight crib of open endemism as-well-behaved befalls in the Eastern Ghats (MacKinnon & MacKinnon, 1986). The Gangetic unembellisheds are unconcealedly moneyless in antipathetics, suitableness the Andaman and Nicobar Islands supply at slightest 220 temperament to the antipathetic flora of India (Botanical Survey of India, 1983). WCMC's Threatened Plants Unit (TPU) is in the proemial stages of cataloguing the globe's centres of locate multiformity; approximately 150 botanical sites globeremote are so far recognised as administering for stabilisation enjoyment, but others are eternally life authorized (IUCN, 1987).Five locations keep so far been issued for India: the Agastyamalai Hills, Silent Valley and New Amarambalam Backwardness and Periyar Open Ring (all in the Western Ghats), and the Eastern and Western Himalaya. The 396 public antipathetic nobleer vertebrate temperament authorized by WCMC. Endemism inchoate mammals and birds is symmetryately low.
Solely 44 temperament of Indian mammal keep a stroll that is confined completisolely to following a suitablenessin Indian territorial limits. Disgusting antipathetic temperament of stabilisation wisdom begravitate in the Western Ghats.They are the Lion-tailed macaque Macaca silenus, Nilgiri leaf monkey Trachypithecus johni (reservedly emend public as Nilgiri langur Presbytis johnii), Brown bays civet Paradoxurus jerdoni and Nilgiri tahr Hemitragus hylocrius. Solely 55 bird temperament are antipathetic to India, following a suitableness disposals close in areas of noble rainfall. These areas, mapped by Birdlife Interopen (formerly the Interopen Council for Bird Preservation) are shown in. They are located oceanly in eastern India contemporaryly the mountain manacles where the monsoon reflection befalls, south-west India (the Western Ghats), and the Nicobar and Andaman Islands (ICBP, 1992).In opposition, endemism in the Indian reptilian and amphibian fauna is noble.
There are environing 187 antipathetic reptiles, and 110 antipathetic amphibian temperament. View amphibian genera are not establish delayout India. They grasp, inchoate the caecilians, Indotyphlus, Gegeneophis and Uraeotyphlus; and inchoate the anurans, the toad Bufoides, the microhylid Melanobatrachus, and the frogs Ranixalus, Nannobatrachus and Nyctibatrachus. Perhaps most renowned inchoate the antipathetic amphibian genera is the monotypic Melanobatrachus which has a individual temperament public solely from a few specimens attentive in the Anaimalai Hills in the 1870s (Groombridge, 1983).It is maybe most air-tight connected to two relict genera establish in the mountains of eastern Tanzania. Threatened Temperament India holds 172 temperament of fleshly considered globally intimidationened by IUCN, or 2. 9% of the globe's aggregate compute of intimidationened temperament (Groombridge, 1993).
These grasp 53 temperament of mammal, 69 birds, 23 reptiles and 3 amphibians. A generous schedule of these temperament is loving in. India holds globally administering populations of some of Asia's rarest fleshlys, such as the Bengal Fox, Asiatic Cheetah, Marbled Cat, Asiatic Lion, Indian Elephant, Asiatic Uninhabited Ass, Indian Rhinoceros, Markhor, Gaur, Uninhabited Asiatic Water Buffalo etc.The compute of temperament in opposed taxa that are scheduleed subordinate the opposed categories of endangerment is shown belowneathneath in Table 2. Table 2. Globally Threatened Animals Occurring in India by foothold Category. Cluster 1994 IUCN Red Schedule Intimidation Condition Endangered Vulnerable Rare Indefinish Insufficiently TOTAL Public ____________________________________________________________ __________________________________Mammals 13 20 2 5 13 53 Birds 6 20 25 13 5 69 Reptiles 6 6 4 5 2 23 Amphibians 0 0 0 3 0 3 Fishes 0 0 2 0 0 2 Invertebrates 1 3 12 2 4 22 ____________________________________________________________ ________________________________ TOTAL 26 49 45 28 24 172 Source: Groombridge, B.
(ed). 1993. The 1994 IUCN Red Schedule of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerfix and Cambridge, UK. lvi + 286 pp. A workshop held in 1982 implied that as divers as 3,000-4,000 nobleer locates may be subordinate a amount of intimidation in India.Since then, the Project on Study, Survey and stabilisation of Endangered temperament of Flora (POSSCEP) has distributeially documented these locates, and published its findings in Red Facts Books (Nayar and Sastry, 1987, Table 3 affords resume statistics for this advice.
Table 3. Resume of Locate stabilisation foothold Inshape at WCMC. IUCN Intimidation condition Compute of temperament _____________________________________________ Extinct 19 Extinct/Endangered 43 Endangered 149Endangered/Vulnerable 2 Vulnerable 108 Rare 256 Indefinish 719 Insufficiently Public 9 No inshape 1441 Not intimidationened 374 _____________________________________________ TOTAL 3120 Source: WCMC Temperament Unit. Armed Areas Network Product and Fact The guard of uninhabitedlife has a crave romance in Indian fact.Wise use of intrinsic instrument was a prerequisite for divers hunter-gatherer societies which era tail to at slightest 6000 BC. Catholic diffusion of jungles accompanied the trice of unroving and scythian societies in succeeding millennia, but an awareness of the insufficiency for ecological information emerged and divers so-called idolatrous sort stabilisation practices were retained. As aggravate and aggravate fix became permanent or rationalistic, so these hunting backwardnesss increasingly became refuges for uninhabitedlife.
Divers of these backwardnesss were succeedingly declared as communityal rings or sanctuaries, for-the-most-distribute following Independence in 1947.Examples grasp Gir in Gujarat, Dachigam in Jammu & Kashmir, Bandipur in Karnataka, Eravikulum in Kerala, Madhav (now Shivpuri) in Madhya Pradesh, Simlipal in Orissa, and Keoladeo, Ranthambore and Sariska in Rajasthan. Wildlife, concertedly following a suitableness junglery, has romanceally been managed subordinate a individual administrative organisation following a suitablenessin the jungle departments of each declare or concert domain, following a suitableness the role of mediate empire life oceanly advisory. There keep been two new-fangled products.First, the uninhabitedlife (Protection) Act has granted for the creation of posts of main uninhabitedlife wardens and uninhabitedlife wardens in the declares to training statutory powers subordinate the Act. Subordinate this Act, it is as-well-behaved mandatory for the declares to set up declare uninhabitedlife advisory boards. Secondly the inclusion of guard of uninhabited fleshlys and birds in the contemporary schedule of the habit, has proved the concert following a suitableness some legislative manage aggravate the declares in the stabilisation of uninhabitedlife (Pillai, 1982).
The post has past improved all declares and concert territories following a suitableness communityal rings or sanctuaries having set up uninhabitedlife wings.The gathering of a Open Policy for uninhabitedlife stabilisation in 1970 and the edict of the uninhabitedlife (Protection) Act in 1972 administer to a suggestive product in the armed areas network, from 5 communityal rings and 60 sanctuaries to 69 and 410 respectively, in 1990 (Panwar, 1990). The network was prefer strengthened by a compute of communityal stabilisation projects, notably Project Tiger, rooted in April 1973 by the Empire of India following a suitableness buttress from WWF (IBWL, 1972; Panwar, 1982), and the crocodile Breeding and Skillful-treatment Project, launched on 1 April, 1975 following a suitableness technical help from UNDP/FAO (Bustard, 1982).Protected Areas of the Western Ghats The Western Ghats are a manacle of noblelands running contemporaryly the western portioy of the Indian subcontinent, from Bombay south to the southern tip of the peninsula, through the declares of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Crust an estimated area of 159,000 sq. km, the Western Ghats are an area of uncommon biological multiformity and stabilisation attention, and are "one of the senior Poetical Everunseasoned Jungle provinces in India” (Rodgers and Panwar, 1988).As the zone has already obsolete a enlightened distribute of its peculiar jungle caggravate (although timber extrenjoyment from the incessantlyunseasoned backwardness jungles in Kerala and Karnataka has now been halted) it must tabulate as a province of protracted stabilisation solicitude.
The slight cherishing degree of intrinsic jungle, coupled following a suitableness uncommon biological costlyness and incessantly increasing razes of intimidation (agriculture, reservoir flooding locateations, logging and aggravate munimentation), are factors which drive senior stabilisation inputs. " There are currently seven communityal rings in the Western Ghats following a suitableness a aggregate area of 2,073 sq. m (equipollent to 1. 3% of the province) and 39 uninhabitedlife sanctuaries crust an area of environing 13,862 sq. km (8. 1%). The skillful-treatment foothold of the uninhabitedlife sanctuaries in this distribute of India varies monstrously.
Tamil Nadu's Nilgiri uninhabitedlife shrine, for specimen, has no rational fellow-creatures, slight wild locateation areas and no result munimentation, suitableness the Parambikulam uninhabitedlife shrine in Kerala grasps extensive areas of negotiateable locateations and privately owned estates following a suitableness cumbrous material munimentation. Interopen Programmes and ConventionsIndia distributeicipates following a suitableness divers interopen agreements and plans solicitudeed following a suitableness aspects of sort stabilisation and sustainable product. These stroll from legitimate instruments such as the Session on Biological Diversity, which locate obligations on those communitys which beseem contracting distributeies, to philosophical plans such as the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme, a global plan of interopen philosophical confederation. Examples of agreements and plans following a suitableness which India is collaborating grasp: Session on Interopen Dealing in Endangered Temperament (CITES)Since India became a distributey to CITES on 18th October 1976 it has granted facts every-year to the CITES secretariat on the dealing of endangered temperament through its CITES Skillful-treatment Authority. The passage of the CITES session contemporaryly following a suitableness the CITES appendices are granted. Globe Inheritance Session India ratified the globe inheritance session in 1977 and past then five intrinsic sites keep been inscribed as areas of 'outstanding total prize'. These sites are: •KazirangaNational Ring •Keoladeo Open Ring •Manas Open Ring •Sunderbans Open Ring •Nanda Devi Open Ring Session on Biological DiversityIndia signed the session on biological multiformity on 5th June 1992, ratified it on 18th February 1994 and brought it into soundness on 19th May 1994.
This session gain afford a framework for the sustainable skillful-treatment and stabilisation of India’s intrinsic instrument. Ramsar (Wetlands) Session India has been a niggardly distributey to the Ramsar session past 1st February 1982. India has now six sites crust some 192,973 hectares of administering wetlands.