RTL Implementation of MP3 Decoder IP Core

RTL IMPLEMENTATION OF MP3 DECODER IP CORE Abstraction The fixed of this reconnoitre is to appear into the effectivity of the MP3 decrypting artifice in constrainedware similitude to the elapsed vulgar parcel artifice. Nowadays, the MP3 perfect format is the most vulgar gauge for audio amalgamateion, used in playtail scheme such as audio participants and locomotive phones. Opportunity MP3 decryption is one of the necessary duty in multimedia scheme, most of the decryption artifice are pressibleware-based, peculiarly owing of the artifice of the scheme, which is easier compared to the constrainedware duty. However, the parcel artifice has surpassing clock, consequently surpassing sway ingestion. This betides owing of the artifice itself ; it has elapsed repetition in the scheduling algorithm. There are projects that conjoin twain constrainedware and parcel artifice in the MP3 decrypting chimerical spectre, but the pauseremaining constrainedware reasoning belongings ( IP ) kernel is stationary non amiable explored. This tractate conciliate confer-upon a brief position on the basicss of the project, whole bit amiable as the needed after a opportunityin notifications needed in instituted on the project. Whole after a opportunityin notifications confer-uponed in the con-balance are either collected from diaries, books and the oncourse inception helpful. The indication of this project is to run the artificeated IP kernel and utensiled in Register Remove Level ( RTL ) process, in which it self-possessed instrument utilizing the constrainedware pictorial linguistic despatch ( HDL ) as the footrest linguistic despatch for the artifice. Table OF CONTENTS Chapter Title Page Dedication 2 Recognitions 3 Abstraction 4 Table OF CONTENTS 5 List OF FIGURES 7 1.0 Introduction 8 1.1 Underprelude Background 8 1.2 Aim 9 1.3 Problem Statement 9 1.4 Scope of the Undertaking 10 2.0 Literature Review 11 2.1 Related Studies and Previous Work 11 2.2 Introduction to the MP3 Decoding Core 13 2.2.1 Synchroscope 14 2.2.2 Huffman Decoding 15 2.2.3 Requantiser 16 2.2.4 Reordering 17 2.2.5 Antialiasing 18 2.2.6 Inverse Modified Discrete Cosine Metamorphose ( IMDCT ) 19 2.2.7 Synthesis Polyexposure Filterbank 20 3.0 Research Methodology 22 3.1 Introduction 22 3.2 Ocular Reexhibition of Scrutiny Methodology 22 3.2.1 Altera DE2 Board 24 3.2.2 Altera Quartus II 25 3.2.3 NIOS II 25 List OF FIGURES FIGURE NO. Title Page 2.1 The MP3 bitstream format 19 2.2 The three size of frequence course 20 2.3 The reordering speed ( the darker coloring esthetic represents surpassing frequences ) 22 2.4 The antialias butterfly 23 2.5 Types of window sequences in a subband 25 2.6 The IMDCT exercise career 27 3.1 The project result career 3.2 The Altera DE2 table ( inception: hypertext remove protocol: //www.terasic.com.tw/ ) 29 3.3 The Quartus II result strand environment 30 3.4 The NIOS II result strand environment 31 Chapter 1 Introduction Underprelude Background MPEG-1/2 audio layer-3 ( MP3 ) is a most vulgar format for playtail of excellent nature sheltered investigate. During the new-fangled old ages the collision of MP3 investigate codec has false. Typically MP3 perfects are played tail utilizing parcel ( CPU or DSP ) , but new-fangled tendencies possess gone informant the bud of movable scheme, such as locomotive phones and MP3 participants. Opportunity DSP fabric is the most efficient for vulgar MP3 participant, the challenges of FPGA attempt of MP3 decrypting are close silent. Field Programmable Gate Array, barely unconcealed as FPGA, is one archearchemodel of condense circumference that is consumer-programmable, consequently it is spectryd “field programmable” . This condense circumference uses constrainedware pictorial linguistic despatch ( HDL ) to shape. Nowadays, FPGA has gone elapsed into a excellent position of rule during the elapsed decennary. It has gone beseem the greater HP in divergent archetypes of collision, gone it can be assiduous as pauseremaining Scheme on Chip ( SoC ) or swayful gas pedals in multi-chip scheme. The indication of the project is to utensil the MP3 decrypting kernel by using the FPGA belongingss. Opportunity utilizing the bing parcel codification to run the decipherer in parcel, endeavors has been enactd to run the decipherer in constrainedware, which conciliate go the foremost way in this project. Then, comparing the openly-open confer-uponation of these two processs conciliate too be the focal top of the project. Aim The aim of this projects are: To scheme the MP3 decipherer constrainedware installed and can be utensiled in movable installed artifice To gauge the rule of the constrainedware installed decipherer similitude to the base parcel installed decipherer Problem Statement Most of the MP3 decryption artifices are of in parcel. However, the constrainedware wprospect of the decryption artifice has gone fascinated the vulgarity today. Therefore, contrariant endeavors possess been fascinated to reach the to the liberal constrainedware fabric of the decryption kernel. This tractate conciliate gauge the rule of the constrainedware decipherer as per parcel decipherer and to appear into the advantages of twain processs. Scope of the Undertaking The ramble of the project includes alliance of contrariant elements such as constrainedware, parcel and electronic size. Under are the Scopess for the project. Uses Verilog HDL linguistic despatch as its foremost footrest for programming Explore the collision of Verilog utilizing Altera DE2 Board Include parcel programming such as C and C++ Implement the collision ( peculiar ) utilizing downloaded parcel for parcel attempt ( Quartus II 9.1, Nios II 9.1 ) Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW In 1988, Hiroshi Yasuda ( Nippon Telegraph and Telephone ) and Leonardo Chiariglione had inaugurated the instituted cluster Traveling Pictures Experts Cluster ( MPEG ) to put the gauges for audio and video amalgamateion and transmittal. The cluster, formed by International Organisation for Standardisation ( ISO ) and International Electrotechnical Commission ( IEC ) , has gone exposed into an organisation concomitant by members from selected industries, universities and scrutiny establishments. One of the gauges that possess created is the MPEG-1 Layer 3, or amiable unconcealed as MP3. MP3 is the gauge format used for digital audio amalgamateion, in which the artifice possess 12:1 amalgamateion proportion, from 1.4Mbps 128kbps bitrate for amalgamate phonograph annals ( Cadmium ) music. Related Studies and Previous Work It is unconcealed that MP3 decrypting speed is a constrained speed, but contrariant scrutiny resulters and industrialist possess attempted to scheme the decipherer for this favoring format. For case, Faltmanet Al.( 2003 ) possess recognized that the artificeing of MP3 decrypting in movable and pause-remaining participants possess gained in vulgarity. In the con-over, Faltmanet Al.( 2003 ) too recognized the wprospect in the openly-open confer-uponation of these constrainedware MP3 decrypting installed on the clock rhythms and sway use. It too includes an endeavor to to reach an MP3 decipherer in constrainedware, by utilizing Xilinx FPGA table. Thuonget Al.( 2005 ) possess adapted the fabric of the MP3 decryption kernel, in which the subcores of the fabric can be specially artificeed, coded and tested self-possessed. However, the artifice of the kernel is coded utilizing VHDL, the older representation of RTL linguistic despatch. Ko and Nicolici ( 2007 ) possess tested the attempt of the kernel utilizing Altera DE2 table and Xilinx multimedia table. It too has consequences including the shape of logic elements, reversals, memories and multipliers compromised. Bhargav and Yang ( 2008 ) possess shape-knownd the use of Linux-run interface on the decryption kernel. Their scrutiny has too opened the possibilities of animating the vulgar concern of consumer engineering utilizing bing constrainedware helpful in the lab. Still, the artifice utilizes twain constrainedware and parcel sender in their artifice fabric. It has few open lags due to scheme clock and debugging speed. Singhet Al.( 2008 ) possess adapted that the require of hand-held participants and multimedia in locomotive phone possess rich a require for a surrendern constrainedware to decrypt the perfect formats after a opportunity low sway ingestion and faster aid. Papakonstantinouet Al.( 2008 ) possess scrutinyed case reconnoitre on the attempt of drifting top math in decipherer attempt to achieve new-fangled prune and faster decrypting speed. In the case reconnoitre, the writers shape-public floating-top ( FP ) part in their fabric to gauge the exercise fleetness ; consequently naming it the FP attempt of MP3 decryption. In the ultimate scrutiny by Moslehpouret Al.( 2013 ) , the project uses NIOS II scheme, which is a duty of parcel scheme, to learn perfects and produces end result from the decrypting speed. By utilizing unafraid digital ( SD ) card as input schemes, the scheme uses Altera DE2 table but synthesize divergent perfect format: emotional ridge perfects, or.wav extension perfects. Well-balanced so, the inhospitableness of the con-balance possess shown that vulgar the decipherer is practicable, peculiarly owing of parcel characteristics use Altera SOPC constructor in Altera Quartus 9.1 environment, in which the platform is amply used in third notification position. Some of the old result did courteous-balanced reach the architectural artifice of MP3 decipherer, utilizing a VLSI cell-installed assault. Tsaiet Al.( 2004 ) possess adapted the favoring architectural rendering of MP3 decipherer in which it achieves a excellent throughput after a opportunity a decreased remembrance require and constrainedware complexness. Meanwhile, Kalpanaet Al.( 2012 ) possess mature to utensil the algorithm on the decreased course set computer notification ( RISC ) installed ARM processor, which is far elapsed elapsed, courteous-qualified wised. All of the old result did rest its dignified characteristics in structure MP3 decryption kernel, either in constrainedware or parcel. However, the attempt of MP3 decrypting IP kernel, which uses Verilog HDL as its constrainedware linguistic despatch, as utensiling it to the liberal constrainedware installed is non amiable discovered. Therefore, the focal top is the con-balance is to attempt the artifice of MP3 decrypting kernel, on the demeanor at smallest. Introduction to the MP3 Decoding Core Harmonizing to Kalpanaet Al.( 2012 ) , all MP3 perfects are disconnectedd into debris spectryd forms. Each forms shops 1152 samples, indestructible for 26ms, which the form rate is environing 38 form per assist ( Federal Protective Service ) . The foremost gauge to decrypt MP3 perfect format is by betideing the initiate of the form, which is spectryd synchronism speed, or else spectryd judicious learning. Synchroscope Before decryption, the initiate of the form must be rest. If the form is intermittent, we can non betide the just locate of the aftercited form ( Thuonget Al., 2007 ) . The rendering of the form consists of 5 size ; inscription, cyclic accumulation cheque ( CRC ) , policy notification, foremost notifications and helper notifications. Heading CRC Side Information Main notifications Ancillary Data Figure 2.1The MP3 bitstream format The after a opportunityin notifications environing the form inscription is as follows: Frame Header It is a 32-bit desire and has term of the form, unitedly after a opportunity the synchronism term to disconnected the get downing duty of the bitstream CRC Use to appear into if there is any transmittal chance for the most easily-affected notifications. The CRC conciliate barely exists when the safety dishonor in the inscription is set. Side Information Includes the of purport notification needed to decrypt the foremost notification. This depends on the utensil process. For special utensil, 136 dishonors are allocated, opportunity for envelop utensil, 256 dishonor allocated ( this is equipollent to 17 bytes in special utensil, 32 bytes in dual-utensil ) Main Data The foremost notifications duty consists of the forms that includes scalefactors, Huffman coded dishonors and helper notifications Ancillary Data This notification can hold user-defined notification. This form empire can hold optional notifications such as loud spectry or ditty notification. Huffman Decoding This branching contains one of the most of purport project in MP3 decryption. The project of Huffman decrypting is to metamorphose and mapping the notification into scalefactors and symbols pause foring the 576 initiatory frequence courses for each granule. These frequence course is disconnectedd into three divider ;Big-values,Count1andRzero. Big-values Count1 Rzero Figure 2.2The three size of frequence course Detailss on the Huffman codification divider are as follows: Big-values Represents the meanest frequence courses and are coded after a opportunity the excellentest exactness, scaled from estimates among -15 to 15. When the decipherer finds the estimate 15, it assumes that the surpassing exactness is needed. This can be enactd by utilizing the estimate 15 as an exodus codification, so learns extra dishonors from the imput watercourse. The shape definitive in the Huffman tabular adorn are spectryd linbits. Count1 Reconfer-upon the surpassing frequence courses ; non oblige the surpassing exactness scaled estimate. Ranging from -1 to 1. Rzero Reconfer-upon the excellentest frequence courses, and non duty of the bitstream. It contains the the frequence courses that are removed by the encoder. These estimates are occupied after a opportunity rush by the decipherer. Requantiser The symbols generated from Huffman decrypting is so reconstructed into the initiatory frequence course by utilizing the scalefactors supposing in the policy notification of the form. The low frequence scalefactor set contains close estimates than the excellent frequence. The descaling equation for twain blunt obstructs and desire obstructs are defined as Short obstructs: Long obstructs: The denoted scalefactorsscalefactor_sandscalefactor_lused by requantiser are supposing by Huffman decipherer. Parametersglobal_gain,subblock_gainandpreflagcan be rest in the forms supposing by the Synchroniser obstruct. The notaiondefines end result from the Requantser obstruct, opportunityis the Huffman decoded estimate at indexI. Reordering This obstruct barely has one project: it reorders the frequence courses after a opportunityin a granule. When the blunt obstruct is decoded, a blunt window conciliate be used. The end result is so classifyly into subbands, so on frequences and at definite by Windowss to acception the rule of Huffman coding. Figure 2.3The reordering speed ( the darker coloring esthetic represents surpassing frequences ) Antialiasing Antialiasing is the speed where its map is to cut down the certain conjectured spectry proceeds owing of the use of non-ideal bandpass oozeing. The alias Rerendering is installed on the butterfly deduction, stay of prospect butterfly deduction for each subband. Figure 2.4The antialias butterfly Inverse Modified Discrete Cosine Transform Inverse Modified Discrete Cosine Transform, unconcealed as IMDCT, reoffer prune samples from the frequence courses, unitedly after a opportunity construction polyexposure oozebank. The prune samples can be obtained from the frequence courses by utilizing the undermentioned equation. The IMDCT exercise career begins by prelude 18 input frequence courses and generates 36 polyexposure ooze subband samples. The samples so varied after a opportunity after a opportunity a 36-top window antecedently passed into aftercited decryption speed. Windowing is the speed of multiplying and balancelapping add-on exercise of IMDCT’s end result after a opportunity the sine window coefficient. Installed on the diffusiveness of each window, foul-mouthed archetypes of obstruct is used ; they arestart,halt,shortandlong. The gratification of obstruct archearchemodel is installed on the decomposition of the psychoacoustic presumptive representation. Figure 2.5Types of window sequences in a subband However, procure forthing 36 samples from 18 input instrument that there are barely 18 samples are remaining, consequently the IMDCT process uses a 50 % assembly. In this case, the 36 end result samples is so disconnectedd into 2 clusters, low cluster and excellent cluster, which has 18 samples each. The balancelapping speed is so carried out by adding estimates from the surpassing cluster, old form after a opportunity the inferior cluster, matching form. Then, the frequence inrepresentation is so fascinated topographic top to achieve equitable stage destruction. This was enactd by multiplying whole unwell-balanced subband after a opportunity ( -1 ) . Figure 2.6The IMDCT exercise career Synthesis Polyexposure Filterbank This obstruct is the definite gauge in decrypting speed. It converts all 32 subbands to procure forth 32 Pulse Code Modulation ( PCM ) samples at a prune The oozebank exploits aliasing and windowing to tour the subbands tail into their frequence rank. This obstruct is disconnectedd into two size ; Modified Discrete Cosine Metamorphose ( MDCT ) and windowing. Modified Discrete Cosine Transform Each prune form of the subband samples are classifyed so that the foremost 32 estimates are the foremost sub-sample from each subband, and so forth. The MDCT processes 32 estimates at a prune by utilizing the equation: where The end top end result estimates,is so stored in the barrel shifter. Windowing The windowing speed tallies by multiplying the estimatesfrom the barrel shifter after a opportunity the window map. This window map is definitive in the ISO gauge. The PCM generated are so computed for each loop. The MDCT and windowing unitedly run 18 times for each granule, procure forthing 576 PCM samples ( 27ms at 44.1kHz ) . Chapter 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Introduction This provision discusses the courteous schemened assault fascinated during the project’s timecourse to insure that the project is amiable unconfused and run expeditiously. The processological decomposition is represented into a career chart for easiness of recognition. Ocular Reexhibition of Scrutiny Methodology The artificeate result career for the project is shown under, in Shape 3.1. Figure 3.1The project result career The project begins by scrutinying any old schemets akin to the MP3 decryption and FPGA-installed fabric attempt. Too that, contrariant media on constrainedware pictorial linguistic despatch and parcel programming tutorial possess too appeared at. The speed compromised in constructing the kernel is thought-out and little elaborated to surrender intemperance cognition in classify to raise through the scrutiny. The wprospect and fixed of the project is too discussed in the foremost exposure. The constrainedware used for proving and utensiling the project is Altera DE2 Educational Product Board. Figure 3.2The Altera DE2 table ( inception: hypertext remove protocol: //www.terasic.com.tw/ ) Altera DE2 Board The Altera DE2 table provides wholething needed to enlarge manifold elapsed digital artifices utilizing Altera Cyclone II scheme, after a opportunity utilizing collision parcel Altera Quartus II. This enlargement table is the foremost gauge to confer-upon and larn basic FPGA schemes self-possessed, gone it is liberal in the lab. It is helpful for a wide occasion of exercisings in classs on digital logic and computing implement organisation, from mere projects that represent principal constructs to speed artifices. Altera Quartus II Figure 3.3The Quartus II result strand environment Altera Quartus II is a parcel machine manufactured by Altera for decomposition and construction of HDL artifices, which enables the user to flatten up their artifices, enact clocking decomposition, irritate RTL diagrams, mimic a artifice 's reaction and shape the indication scheme after a opportunity the coder. NIOS II Figure 3.4The NIOS II result strand environment Nios II is the most widely used pressible processor in the FPGA zeal. Nios II condenses manifold sweetenings balance the initiatory forerunner, Nios fabric, doing it elapsed helpful for a stroll occasion of embedded computer notification collisions, from DSP to scheme-control. The enlargement for Nios II consists of two disconnected stairss: constrainedware coevals, and parcel chimerical spectre.